Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
List of Abbreviations

gabbham eke uppajjanti nirayaṃ pāpakammino

saggaṃ sugatino yanti parinibbanti anāsavā

(DhP 126)

Sentence Translation:

Some are born in the womb; evildoers arise in hell;
righteous ones go to heaven; those without taints are completely emancipated.

Sentence Structure:

List of Abbreviations

gabbham  eke    uppajjanti nirayaṃ pāpa+kammino
|                 |             |             |          |          |

N.m.     Num.m. V.act.in.    N.m.    N.n.  Adj.m.

Acc.Sg. Nom.Pl. 3.Pl.pres. Acc.Sg.    |     Nom.Pl.

|_________|________|             |         |______|

         |____|                            |________|

List of Abbreviations

saggaṃ  sugatino   yanti   parinibbanti anāsavā
|                 |             |              |              |

N.m.      Adj.m.  V.act.in.   V.act.in.   Adj.m.

Acc.Sg. Nom.Pl. 3.Pl.pres. 3.Pl.pres. Nom.Pl.

|_________|________|             |________|


Vocabulary and Grammar:

List of Abbreviations

gabbham: gabbha-, N.m.: womb. Acc.Sg. = gabbham.

eke: eka-, Num.: one. Nom.Pl.m. = eke.

uppajjanti, V.: arise, are born. The verb root is pad- (to come) with the prefix ud- (up).
3.Pl.act.in.pres. = uppajjanti.

nirayaṃ: niraya-, N.m.: hell. Acc.Sg. = nirayaṃ.

pāpakammino: pāpakammin-, Adj.: evildoer. It is a compound of:
    pāpa-, Adj.: evil, wrong. As an N.n.: evil, wrong doing.

    kammin-, Adj.: doer, acting. It is the word kamma-, N.n.: deed, action (derived from the verb

    kar-, to do) with the possessive suffix -in.

Nom.Pl.m. = pāpakammino.

List of Abbreviations

saggaṃ: sagga-, N.m.: heaven. Acc.Sg. = saggaṃ.

sugatino: sugatin-, Adj.: righteous. It is the word sugati- with the possessive suffix -in.
The word sugati-, N.f.: happiness, happy fate, is composed of:

    su-, pref.: good, easy.

    gati-, N.f.: existence. Derived from the verb gam- (to go).

Nom.Pl.m. = sugatino.

yanti, V.: go. The verb root is yā-. 3.Pl.act.in.pres. = yanti.

parinibbanti, V.: are completely emancipated, completely free, have reached the Nirvana. The verb root is vā- (to blow) with the prefixes ni- (off, out) and pari- (completely). 3.Pl.act.in.pres. = parinibbanti.

anāsavā: anāsava-, Adj.: without taints. It is the word āsava-, N.m.: taint, corruption; negated by the negative prefix an-. Nom.Pl.m. = anāsavā.

List of Abbreviations

    This verse consists of four separate sentences. They are:

    1) gabbham eke uppajjanti (some are born in the womb). The subject is the numeral eke (ones, some; nominative plural). The verb is uppajjanti (arise, are born; 3rd person, plural, active, indicative, present tense). The object is the noun gabbham (to the womb, accusative singular).

    2) nirayaṃ pāpakammino (evildoers arise in hell). The subject is the compound pāpakammino (evildoers, nominative plural). The verb is omitted; uppajjanti from the previous sentence is implied. The object is the noun nirayaṃ (to hell, accusative singular).
    3) saggaṃ sugatino yanti (righteous ones go to heaven). The subject is the noun sugatino (righteous ones, nominative plural). The verb is yanti (go, 3rd person, plural, active, indicative, present tense). The object is the noun saggaṃ (to heaven, accusative singular).

    4) parinibbanti anāsavā (those without taints are completely emancipated). The subject is the adjective anāsavā (those without taints, nominative plural). The verb is parinibbanti (are completely emancipated, 3rd person, singular, active, indicative, present tense).


    In the city of Sāvatthi once lived a gem polisher. He has been giving almsfood to a certain monk for the last twelve years. One day, the gem polisher was carrying a piece of meat when a messenger for the king arrived, giving him a piece of gem that the king wanted to be cut and polished. The gem polisher took the gem with his hands bloody from the meat, put it on the table and went to wash his hands.

    The family had a pet bird. When it saw the gem covered with blood, it took it for a piece of meat and ate it. When the gem polisher returned, he did not see the gem anywhere. He asked everybody, but nobody knew anything. At the end he also asked the monk, who was also present. The monk replied that he did not take the gem.

    The gem polisher was convinced, that the monk was lying and decided to inflict torture on him. Even though his wife discouraged him from this action, saying that this monk was an Arahant and their teacher for so many years, the gem polisher paid no attention. He tied the monk up and beat him with a stick.

    The monk started to bleed all over his body and the bird came over again, drawn by the blood. The gem polisher was angry and kicked the bird, killing it instantly. Only then did the monk reveal that the bird ate the gem. The gem polisher cut the bird open and indeed found the gem inside.

    Immediately he untied the monk and asked for forgiveness. The monk replied that he feels no hatred towards him and even agreed to continue coming to his house for almsfood. Only after this he would not enter the house - just stay by the door.

    Soon after, the monk died from his injuries and reached the final Nirvana. The bird was born as the gem polisher's son. When the gem polisher died he was born in hell and his wife in heaven, because she spoke against beating of the innocent monk.

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