Gatha Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
                          List of Abbreviations

chandajato anakkhate manasa ca phuto siya

kamesu ca appatibaddhacitto uddhajsoto ti vuccati

(DhP 218)

Sentence Translation:

Who is intent on The Indescribable, who has an expanded mind,
whose mind is not bound to sense-pleasures, he is called "going against the current".

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

chanda+jato   anakkhate manasa ca     phuto        siya
|              |            |              |        |          |              |
N.m.  Adj.m.   Adj.m.      N.n.   conj.  Adj.m.    V.act.
|        Nom.Sg. Loc.Sg.   Ins.Sg.    |    Nom.Sg. 3.Sg.opt.
|________|            |              |____|______|              |
       |___________|                      |     |___________|
                 |                                |________|

List of Abbreviations

kamesu ca appatibaddha+citto uddhaj+soto       ti      vuccati
|             |           |               |         |          |          |            |
N.m.   conj.     Adj.       Adj.m.  Adv.  Adj.m.  part.
Loc.Pl.   |           |         Nom.Sg.   |    Nom.Sg.    |     3.Sg.pres.
|             |           |________|          |_____|           |            |
|_______|__________|                       |_________|            |
     |____|                                                   |___________|

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

chandajato: chandajata-, Adj.: in whom there is a wish arisen, intent on. It is a compound of:
    chanda-, N.m.: wish, desire, intention.
    jata-, Adj.: born, grown, become. It is a p.p. of the verb jan- (to be born).
Nom.Sg.m. = chandajato.

anakkhate: anakkhata-, Adj.: indescribable, beyond description. It is the word akkhata-, Adj.: told, shown (it is a p.p. of the verb root kha-, to say, with the intensifying prefix a-), and negated by the negative prefix an-. Loc.Sg.m. = anakkhate.

manasa: manas-, N.n.: mind. Inst.Sg. = manasa.

ca, conj.: and.

phuto: phuta-, Adj.: spread out, expanded, pervaded. It is a p.p. of the verb root phar- (to pervade, to expand). Nom.Sg.m. = phuto.

List of Abbreviations

siya, V.: would be. The verb root is as-. 3.Sg.act.opt. = siya.

kamesu: kama-, N.m.: sense-pleasure, sense desire. Loc.Pl. = kamesu.

ca: see above.

appatibaddhacitto: apatibaddhacitta-, Adj.: without an attracted or bound mind. It is the word patibaddhacitta-, Adj. (with a bound mind, with an attracted mind), negated by the negative prefix a-. This word is a compound of:
    patibaddha-, Adj.: bound, attracted, dependent. It is a p.p. of the verb root badh- (to bind) with the prefix pati- (towards).
    citta-, N.n.: mind.
Nom.Sg.m. = apatibaddhacitto.

List of Abbreviations

uddhajsoto: uddhajsota-, Adj.: going upwards in the stream, against the current, towards the Nirvana. It is a compound of:
    uddhaj, Adv.: up, upwards.
    sota-, N.n.: stream.
Nom.Sg.m. = uddhajsoto.

ti, part.: a particle, symbolizing the end of direct speech. In English this is expressed by quotation marks. Sometimes it is written as iti.

vuccati, V.: is called. It is a passive form of the verb root vac- (to say). = vuccati.

List of Abbreviations

    This verse consists of four segments:
    1) chandajato anakkhate (who is intent on The Indescribable). The subject is the compound chandajato (having the wish arisen, nominative singular). The object is the adjective anakkhate (on The Indescribable, locative singular).
    2) manasa ca phuto siya (who has an expanded mind). The subject is the past participle phuto (expanded, nominative singular). It has an attribute, the noun manasa (by mind, instrumental singular). The verb is siya (would be, 3rd person, singular, active, optative). The conjunction ca connects this segment to the previous one.
    3) kamesu ca appatibaddhacitto (whose mind is not bound to sense-pleasures). The subject is the compound apatibaddhacitto (having the mind unbound, nominative singular). It has an attribute, the noun kamesu (to sense-pleasures, locative plural). The conjunction ca connects this segment to the previous one.
    4) uddhajsoto ti vuccati (he is called "going against the current"). The subject is omitted; the subjects of the three previous segments are implied. The verb is vuccati (is called, 3rd person, singular, passive, indicative, present tense). The object is the compound uddhajsoto ([going] against the current, nominative singular). It is introduced by the particle ti (marks the direct speech).


    There was an old monk who had many disciples. Many times they asked him about his attainments, but he never said anything. He has attained the third stage of Awakenment, but he decided he would not say anything, until he attained the full Awakenment. But he passed away without attaining the Arahantship and never told his pupils anything.
    The disciples thought their teacher had not attained any stage of Awakenment and fell very sorry. They asked the Buddha about this matter. The Buddha told him their teacher had actually attained the third stage, called Anagami (never coming back again). He was reborn in high abodes of the Brahma heaven, never to come back to this world again. He would eventually reach the Awakenment there. The Buddha also told the students why their teacher never said anything - he was modest and also a bit ashamed he head not reached the full Arahantship. The Buddha also added this verse, describing their teacher.

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