Gatha Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
                          List of Abbreviations

jhayij virajam asinaj katakiccam anasavaj

uttamattham anuppattaj tam ahaj brumi brahmanaj

(DhP 386)

Sentence Translation:

Who is meditating, stainless, settled, has done his duty, is without taints,
has reached the highest attainment - him do I call a Brahmin.

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

jhayij    virajam  asinaj   kata+kiccam anasavaj
|                  |             |          |          |             |
Adj.m.    Adj.m.   Adj.m.   Adj.  Adj.m.    Adj.m.
Acc.Sg.  Acc.Sg.  Acc.Sg.     |    Acc.Sg.   Acc.Sg.
|                  |             |          |______|            |

List of Abbreviations

uttama+attham anuppattaj  tam      ahaj       brumi  brahmanaj
|                |             |             |            |               |              |
Adj.       N.n.      Adj.m.   Pron.m.   Pron.     N.m.
|          Acc.Sg.   Acc.Sg.   Acc.Sg.  Nom.Sg. 1.Sg.pres.  Acc.Sg.
|_________|             |             |            |               |              |
        |____________|             |            |               |              |
__________|______________|            |               |              |
                                                         |       |____|

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

jhayij: jhayin-, Adj.m.: meditating. Derived from the verb jhe- (to meditate). Acc.Sg.m. = jhayij.

virajam: viraja-, Adj.: dustless, stainless, clean. It is the word rajo-, N.m. (dust, dirt) with the prefix vi- (away from, without). Acc.Sg.m. = virajam.

asinaj: asina-, Adj.: settled, lit. "sitting". It is a p.p. of the verb as- (to sit). Acc.Sg.m. = asinaj.

katakiccam: katakicca-, Adj.: who has done what ought to be done, who has done his duty. It is a compound of:
    kata-, Adj.: done. It is a p.p. of the verb root kar- (to do).
    kicca-, Adj.: must be done, ought to be done. It is a grd. of the verb kar- (to do).
Acc.Sg.m. = katakiccam.

anasavaj: anasava-, Adj.: without taints. It is the word asava- N.m.: taint, corruption; negated by the negative prefix an-. Acc.Sg.m. = anasavaj.

List of Abbreviations

uttamattham: uttamattha-, N.n.: the highest attainment. It is a compound of:
    uttama-, Adj.: highest, noble.
    attha-, N.n.: welfare, attainment. Here in the sense of "spiritual attainment".
Euphonic combination: uttama- + attha- = uttamattha-.
Acc.Sg. = uttamattham.

anuppattaj: anupatta-, Adj.: reached, attained. It is a p.p. of the verb root ap- (to get, to obtain) with the prefixes anu- (at, to) and pa- (strengthening). Acc.Sg.m. = anuppattaj.

tam: tad-, Pron.: it. Masculine form: so-, he. Acc.Sg. = tam (him).

ahaj, Pron.: I. Nom.Sg. = ahaj.

brumi, V.: [I] say, proclaim. The verb root is bru-. = brumi.

brahmanaj: brahmana-, N.m.: Brahmin, a holy man. Acc.Sg. = brahmanaj.

List of Abbreviations

    The subject is the pronoun ahaj (I, nominative singular). The verb is brumi ([I] say, 1st person, singular, active, indicative, present tense). The object is the noun brahmanaj (Brahmin, accusative singular). It has seven attributes:
    1) the pronoun tam (him, accusative singular),
    2) the adjective jhayij (meditating, accusative singular),
    3) the adjective virajam (stainless, accusative singular),
    4) the past participle asinaj (settled, accusative singular),
    5) the compound katakiccam (who has done his duty, accusative singular),
    6) the adjective anasavaj (without taints, accusative singular),
    7) the past participle anuppattaj (reached, accusative singular). This word has its own attribute, the compound uttamatthaj (the highest attainment, accusative singular).


    Once a certain Brahmin thought that the Buddha always called his disciples "Brahmins" even though they were not Brahmins by caste. So he went to the Buddha and asked what he meant by "Brahmin". The Buddha replied with this verse, saying that one does not become a Brahmin by birth, but only by long and diligent practice of the Dharma.

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