Gatha Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
                          List of Abbreviations

yodha pubbaj ca papaj ca ubho savgam upaccaga

asokaj virajaj suddhaj tam ahaj brumi brahmanaj

(DhP 412)

Sentence Translation:

Who has in this world gone beyond both attachments of good and evil,
who is free from sorrow, stainless and pure - him do I call a Brahmin.

Sentence Structure:
List of Abbreviations

yo                idha pubbaj ca   papaj   ca     ubho   savgam upaccaga
|                      |         |        |         |         |         |            |            |
Rel.Pron.m. Adv.   N.n.   conj.   N.n.   conj. Adj.m.    N.m.  V.act.aor.
Nom.Sg.          |   Acc.Sg.   |     Acc.Sg.   |    Acc.Du. Acc.Sg.    3.Sg.
|                      |         |____|          |_____|         |_______|            |
|                      |             |___________|                    |                  |
|                      |                       |_________________|                  |
|                      |______________________|__________________|
|                                          |___________|

List of Abbreviations

asokaj virajaj suddhaj tam       ahaj      brumi brahmanaj
|                 |           |           |             |             |              |
Adj.m.   Adj.m.  Adj.m. Pron.m.   Pron.    N.m.
Acc.Sg. Acc.Sg. Acc.Sg. Acc.Sg. Nom.Sg. 1.Sg.pres. Acc.Sg.
|_________|_______|______|             |             |              |
                                                       |             |____|

Vocabulary and Grammar:
List of Abbreviations

yo: yad-, Rel.Pron.: that which. Nom.Sg.m. = yo.

idha, Adv.: here, in this world.
Euphonic combination: yo + idha = yodha.

pubbaj: pubba-, N.n.: good deed, meritorious deed, merit. Acc.Sg. = pubbaj.

ca, conj.: and.

papaj: papa-, N.n.: evil, wrong doing. Acc.Sg. = papaj.

ubho: ubha-, Adj.: both. Acc.Du.m. = ubho. This is a rare remnant of dual in Pali.

List of Abbreviations

savgam: savga-, N.m.: clinging, attachment, bond. It is derived from the verb root sabj- (to cling). Acc.Sg. = savgam.

upaccaga, V.: escape, pass, go by. The verb root is gam- (to go) with the prefixes upa- (near) and ati- (by, beyond). 3.Sg.act.aor. = upaccaga.

asokaj: asoka-, Adj.: free from sorrow. The word soka-, N.m.: grief, sorrow, negated by the negative prefix a-. Acc.Sg.m. = asokaj.

virajaj: viraja-, Adj.: dustless, stainless, clean. It is the word rajo-, N.m. (dust, dirt) with the prefix vi- (away from, without). Acc.Sg.m. = virajaj.

List of Abbreviations

suddhaj: suddha-, Adj.: clean, pure. It is a p.p. of the verb root sudh- (to clean). Acc.Sg.m. = suddhaj.

tam: tad-, Pron.: it. Masculine form: so-, he. Acc.Sg. = tam (him).

ahaj, Pron.: I. Nom.Sg. = ahaj.

brumi, V.: [I] say, proclaim. The verb root is bru-. = brumi.

brahmanaj: brahmana-, N.m.: Brahmin, a holy man. Acc.Sg. = brahmanaj.

List of Abbreviations

    This verse consists of two related sentences. They are:
    1) yodha pubbaj ca papaj ca ubho savgam upaccaga (who has in this world gone beyond both attachments of good and evil). The subject is the relative pronoun yo (who, nominative singular). The verb is upaccaga (has gone beyond, 3rd person, singular, active, aorist). It has an attribute, the adverb idha (here). There are three objects, the nouns pubbaj (good, accusative singular) and papaj (evil, accusative singular). These are connected by two conjunctions ca (and). The third attribute is the noun savgam (attachment, accusative singular) with its attribute, the adjective ubho (both, accusative dual).
    2) asokaj virajaj suddhaj tam ahaj brumi brahmanaj (who is free from sorrow, stainless and pure - him do I call a Brahmin). The subject is the pronoun ahaj (I, nominative singular). The verb is brumi ([I] say, 1st person, singular, active, indicative, present tense). The object is the noun brahmanaj (Brahmin, accusative singular). It has four attributes, the pronoun tam (him, accusative singular) and the adjectives asokaj (free from sorrow, accusative singular), virajaj (stainless, accusative singular) and suddhaj (pure, accusative singular).


    One day the monks complained to the Buddha that a novice named Revata is getting many offerings from the people although he lives alone in the forest. They accused Revata of craving for material gains. The Buddha spoke this verse, saying that Revata has given up all cravings and is an Arahant.

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