Lesson 2


Declination of the a-stems in the plural:

deva (m., "god")

Nom. devah

Acc. devan

Voc. devah

phala (n., "fruit")

Nom. phalani

Acc. phalani

Voc. phalani


The plural indicative present forms of the verb vad- (VI. class):

1st person plural: vad+a+mah

2nd person plural: vad+a+tha

3rd person plural: vad+a+nti


Some irregularities of the verbs in the VI. and I. classes:

gam- (to go) and yam- (to give) change -m- to -cch-: gacchati, yacchati; sad- (to sit) changes -a- to -i-: sidati; stha- (to stand) changes the whole root to tistha: tisthasi; is (to want) changes -s- to -cch-: icchanti.


Negative form of the verb is formed by adding a particle -na- in front of the verb. So: na gacchami (I do not go or I am not going), na vadanti (they do not say, they are not saying).


Sanskrit uses enclitics which are added after the word they belong to: ca (and), va (or), tu (but), eva (particle of emphasis, just): ksetraj phalani ca or ksetraj ca phalani ca (field and fruits), ksetraj phalani va or ksetraj va phalani va (field or fruits), bhojanaj tu (but the food...), buddham eva (just the Buddha, the Buddha only).


In Sanskrit, the verb "to be" can be ommited in the sentence. Thus: narah kutra? (Where [is] the man?), bhojanam atra (the food [is] here).


Text (read and translate):

1. balah kataj diwati |

2. kutra katah |

3. brahmanah sada yajanti devan |

4. kada gramaj gacchanti putrah |

5. grhamatra tisthati |

6. nrpah kva sidati |

7. nagaramadhuna gacchamah |

8. nagarameva gacchami |

9. danani yacchanti |

10. tatra dhavanti gajah |

11. grhaj na tyajati narah |

12. narandevah srjati |

13. gramamadya viwamah |

14. yada dhavatha tada patatha |

15. yatra grhani tatra narah |

16. devaj brahmanah wajsanti |

17. tatha jivamah |

18. margaj diwatha balah |

19. jalamicchanti gajah |

20. jalaj na sprwamah |

21. devannamanti |

22. balah ksiramicchati |

23. dhanamicchamah |

24. adya ksetrani na krsamah |

25. kada danani yacchatha |

26. kutra jalam |


The exercise key


Translate to Sanskrit:

1. Where are you (pl.) going?

2. Brahmins still sit there.

3. Kshatriyas don't give gifts.

4. Where are the elephants?

5. I want water.

6. We are leaving the world today.

7. Where the water does not flow, there the people do not live.

8. We praise the boys.

9. Do you want milk?

10. The man steps on (viw-) the mat.

11. Boys, you are pointing the way.

12. Where is the city, there stay the houses.


The exercise key


Vocabulary

is-, icchati (VI): to want, to yearn for

gam-, gacchati (I): to go

tyaj-, tyajati (I): to leave, to give up

diw-, diwati (VI): to show, to point

dhav-, dhavati (I): to run

nam-, namati (I): to bow, to prostrate, to worship

yam-, yacchati (I): to give

viw-, viwati (VI): to enter

wajs-, wajsati (I): to praise, to extol

sad-, sidati (I): to sit, to sit down

srj-, srjati (VI): to create

stha-, tisthati (I): to stand, to stay

sprw-, sprwati (VI): to touch

kata-, m.: mat

ksira-, n.: milk

gaja-, m.: elephant

grama-, m.: village

jala-, n.: water

dana-, n.: gift

deva-, m.: god, lord

dhana-, n.: wealth, money

nagara-, n.: city, town

putra-, m.: son

marga-, m.: way, road

eva, adv.: just, only

kada, adv.: when?

tatha, adv.: thus, so

tada, adv.: then, at that time

yatra, adv.: where (relative)

yada, adv.: when (relative)