Lesson 22




Is created from the basic verb by its conjugation in the 10th class, that is using the augment -aya-: jan- (to be born), janayati (to give birth, to beget); gam- (to go), gamayati (to let go, to make somebody to go). Majority of the verbs ending in -a add -p- between the root and -aya-: jba- (to know), jbapayati (to make known, to proclaim); ga- (to sing), gapayati (to let sing). And also adhi+i- (to learn), adhyapayati (to teach). But the causative of pa- (to drink) is payayati (to make drink, to water). If the root ends in any other vowel, it is usually changed into vrddhi grade: bhu- (to be), bhavayati (to make something happen); kr- (to do), karayati (to cause to be done).

The vowel -a- between consonants in the root is sometimes lengthened but sometimes not: pat- (to fall, to fly), patayati (to make to fall or to fly) but jan-, janayati (see above).

When translating the causative, we often have to use fantasy and use appropriate verbs. So wravayati (literally "to cause to be heard") we can - according to the context - translate as "to recite", "to sing", "to tell", "to report" etc.

The causative is used with two accusatives (to cause somebody to do something) or an accusative of the subject and a instrumental of the object (to make something to be done by somebody).


Text (read and translate):


1. suta | adhuna sthapaya ratham | yathajbapayati devah ||

2. dawarathawcarunputranajanayat |

3. vaiwyankarandapayennrpah |

4. upanayane balannavinani vastrani paridhapayeyuh |

5. vayorbalena taravo 'patyanta |

6. ksatriya yuddhe 'rinmarayanti |

7. wantyarthe dutaj prasthapayetparthivah |

8. vrkaj vane pita putrayadarwayat |

9. nrpasya kanya strinaj madhye rupenawobhata |

10. suto 'wvannadyamapayayat |

11. deva lokanpalayeyurnrpasya rajyaj vardhayeyuwceti vipro 'vadat |

12. kumaro vrksanakartayannavinaj grhamasthapayacca |

13. dvijo dvijasya putrij parinayetputraj ca janayet |

14. atithij grhaj pravewayedgrhasthah |

The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit:


1. A servant reported to the king the coming of both ascetics.

2. Let the Brahmins teach the shastras.

3. Show (sg.) the father the books.

4. They let the children go to the city because of (their) protection.

5. They watered horses with water from the river.

6. Let the householder return home.

7. Let them allow the guests to enter.

8. Let (pl.) the cows come into the cowshed.

The exercise key



adhi+i-, caus. adhyapayati: to teach

a+gam-, caus. agamayati: to let come

a+jba-, caus. ajbapayati: to order

da-, caus. dapayati: to let give

pari+dha-, caus. paridhapayati: to wear

drw-, caus. darwayati: to show

apa+ni-, caus. apanayayati: to lead away

pat-, caus. patayati: to knock down

mr-, caus. marayti: to kill

vid-, caus. vedayati: to announce, to make known

vrdh-, caus. vardhayati: to make bigger, to enlarge

pa-, palayati: to protect

pra+stha-, pratisthati: to go away

pra+stha-, caus. prasthapayati: to send

agamana-, n.: coming

kara-, m.: hand, elephant's trunk, tax

duta-, m.: messenger

gostha-, m.: cowshed

manoratha-, m.: desire

vrka-, m.: wolf

rupa-, m.: form, beauty

stri-, f.: woman

madhye, postp.: between, amongst (with genitive)

arthe, postp.: for the sake of

vrtha, adv.: in vain, to no avail