Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
List of Abbreviations

Manopubbaṅgammā dhammā

Manoseṭṭhā manomayā

Manasā ce pasannena

Bhāsati vā karoti vā

Tato naṃ sukhaṃ anveti

Chāyā va anapāyinī


All things are preceded by mind,
Mind is their master, they are produced by mind.

If somebody speaks or acts

With a purified mind,

Hence happiness follows him,

Like never departing shadow.

Sentence Structure:

List of Abbreviations

Mano+pubbaṅ+gammā dhammā
|              |            |             |

N.n.      Adv.    Adj.m.     N.m.

|              |      Nom.Pl.   Nom.Pl.

|              |______|              |

|___________|                    |



List of Abbreviations

Mano+seṭṭhā     mano+mayā
|             |          |         |

N.n.   Adj.m.  N.n.  Adj.m.

|        Nom.Pl.   |    Nom.Pl.

|_______|          |_____|


List of Abbreviations

Manasā ce pasannena
|             |          |

N.n.     part.  Adj.m.

Ins.Sg.   |       Ins.Sg.




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Bhāsati         vā         karoti         vā
|                     |             |                |

V.act.in.      conj.    V.act.in        conj.

3.Sg.pres.       |       3.Sg.pres.        |

|____________|            |_________|




List of Abbreviations

Tato     naṃ     sukham         anveti
|              |            |                    |

Adv.   Pron.m.    N.n.          V.act.in.

|         Acc.Sg.   Nom.Sg.      3.Sg.pres

|              |            |___________|

|              |____________|




List of Abbreviations

Chāyā     va     anapāyinī
|               |            |

N.f.       enc.     Adj.f.

Nom.Sg.  |      Nom.Sg.




Vocabulary and Grammar:

List of Abbreviations

manopubbaṅgammā: manopubbaṅgamma-, Adj.: preceded by mind. Compound of
    mano: manas-, N.n.: mind. The compound form: mano.

    pubbaṅgamma-, Adj.: preceded. This is itself a compound of two words:

        pubbaṃ. Adv.: before. The compound form: pubbaṅ.

        gamma-, Adj., ger.: going. Derived from the verb gam- (to go).

Nom.Pl. = manopubbaṅgammā.

dhammā: dhamma-, N.m.: here does not mean Buddha's teaching, but can be interpreted as 1) mental states or 2) things generally. Nom.Pl. = dhammā.

manoseṭṭhā: manoseṭṭha-, Adj.: having mind as a master. Compound of two words:
    mano: explained above.

    seṭṭha-, Adj.: best, excellent.

Thus the compound literally means "having the mind as the best".

Nom.Pl. = manoseṭṭhā.

List of Abbreviations

manomayā: manomaya-, Adj.: created by mind. Compound of two words:
    mano: explained above

    maya-, Adj.: made of, created by, consisting of, produced by.

Nom.Pl. = manomayā.

manasā: manas-, N.n.: mind (explained also above). Inst.Sg. = manasā.

ce, part.: conditional particle "if".

pasannena: pasanna-, Adj.: purified, clear, bright; p.p. of the verb sad- (to become bright or purified) preceded by the strengthening prefix pa-. Ins.Sg. = pasannena.

bhāsati: Verb bhās-, to speak. 3.Sg.act.in.pres. = bhāsati.

List of Abbreviations

, conj.: or.

karoti: Verb kar-, to do, to act, to perform. 3.Sg.act.in.pres. = karoti.

tato, Adv.: originally Abl.Sg. of tat- (it), literally "from that". Because of that, thence, thereupon, afterwards.

naṃ: ena-, pron. In Pali used only in Acc.Sg.m. = naṃ (him).

sukham: sukha-, N.n.: happiness. Nom.Sg. = sukhaṃ.

List of Abbreviations

anveti: verb i-, to go, preceded by prefix anu- (with, along, following). 3.Sg.act.in.pres. = anveti.

chāyā: chāyā-, N.f.: shadow. Nom.Sg. = chāyā.

va, enc.: as if, like.

anapāyinī: anapāyin-, Adj.: non-departing. Possessive form of the word apāya (separation, loss) preceded by negative particle an- (not). The word apāya is derived from the verb i-, to go, preceded by the prefix apa- (away from). Nom.Sg.f. = anapāyinī.

List of Abbreviations

    Most of this verse is identical with DhP 1. Please, see DhP 1 for the notes on the first four lines of this verse.

    We will talk about the last line, a clause chāyā va anapāyinī (like a never departing shadow). Chāyā (shadow) is in nominative case, because it is the subject of the sentence. The verb is omitted (again, the verb anveti is implied).

    We talked about the enclitic va (as, like) in DhP 1, therefore we will not mention it again here.

    The last word anapāyinī (never departing) is an attribute to the subject. It agrees with it in case -- it is in nominative.


    This verse is closely related to the previous one (DhP 1). If the mind is purified, the mental phenomena it creates are also pure. Therefore, joy and happiness follow as surely as suffering and sorrow in case of a defiled mind. As we can see from these two verses, happiness and suffering depends on us entirely, on our own minds, on the thoughts that we are harboring. There is no other way to happiness then purification of mind and ultimately, in destroying all the defilement completely and reaching the highest goal, the awakenment of Nirvana.


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