Gāthā Sentence Translation Sentence Structure
Vocabulary&Grammar Commentary Pronunciation
List of Abbreviations

akkocchi maṃ avadhi maṃ

ajini maṃ ahāsi me

ye ca taṃ upanayhanti

veraṃ tesaṃ na sammati

(DhP 3)


He abused me, he beat me,
He defeated me, he robbed me.

Those, who harbour such thoughts,

Their hatred is not appeased.

Sentence structure:

List of Abbreviations

akkocchi     maṃ     avadhi     maṃ
|                    |             |             |

V.aor.        Pron.      V.aor.    Pron.

3.Sg.        Acc.Sg.      3.Sg.   Acc.Sg.

|___________|             |_______|


List of Abbreviations

ajini         maṃ         ahāsi         me
|                  |               |              |

V.aor.      Pron.        V.aor.     Pron.

3.Sg.      Acc.Sg.       3.Sg.     Gen.Sg.

|__________|               |________|


List of Abbreviations

ye                 ca             taṃ         upanayhanti
|                     |                 |                  |

rel.Pron.      conj.       Pron.m.       V.act.in.

Nom.Pl.         |            Acc.Sg.       3.Pl.pres.

|                     |                 |__________|




List of Abbreviations

veraṃ         tesaṃ         na         sammati
|                     |              |                 |

N.n.            Pron.       neg.         V.act.in.

Nom.Sg.    Gen.Pl.        |            3.Sg.pres.

|____________|             |__________|



Vocabulary and Grammar:

List of Abbreviations

akkocchi: the verb ā+kus- (to abuse, to scold). Aor.3.Sg. = akkocchi.

maṃ: Pron. aham-, I. Acc.Sg. = maṃ.

avadhi: the verb vadh- (to strike, to beat). Aor.3.Sg. = avadhi.

maṃ: see above.

ajini: the verb ji- (to win, to conquer). Aor.3.Sg. = ajini.

maṃ: see above.

List of Abbreviations

ahāsi: the verb har- (to carry, to take). Aor.3.Sg. = ahāsi.

me: Pron. aham-, I. Gen.Sg. = me.

ye: rel.Pron. yad-, that which. Nom.Pl.m. = ye (those [people] who).

ca: conj.: and

taṃ: Pron. tad-, that. Acc.Sg.m. = taṃ.

upanayhanti: The verb nah- (to bind, to tie) with the prefix upa- (towards). To come into touch with, to tie oneself to. 3.Pl.act.in.pres. = upanayhanti.

List of Abbreviations

veraṃ: vera-, N.n.: hatred, enmity. Nom.Sg. = veraṃ.

tesaṃ: Pron. tad-, that. Gen.Pl.m. = tesaṃ (their).

na: neg.: not.

sammati: The verb sam- (to be appeased). 3.Sg.act.in.pres. = sammati.

List of Abbreviations

    The first sentence is actually a compound sentence containing four segments:
    1) akkocchi maṃ,

    2) avadhi maṃ,

    3) ajini maṃ,

    4) ahāsi me.

    We can deal with them as with separate sentences. In all four of them, the subject is omitted. Because all verbs are in 3rd person singular, aorist (one of the ways to express past tense in Pali), the subject is the 3rd person singular pronoun (he or she). As objects are used the pronouns "I" in accusative case in first three sentences and in genitive case in the last of them.

    Second sentence also contains two sentences:
    1) ye ca taṃ upanayhanti,

    2) veraṃ tesaṃ na sammati.

    In the first sentence, the object is ye (those, who) which is in nominative singular. The verb (upanayhanti) is in 3rd person plural, present tense, active voice and indicative mood. Object taṃ (that) is in accusative singular. The conjunction ca (and) should be placed at the end of the sentence (ye taṃ upanayhanti ca) but again, in the poetry these rules are not enforced rigidly.

    The second sentence has as the subject veraṃ (hatred), which is in nominative singular. The verb is sammati (is appeased; with the negative particle "na" - is not appeased). It is in 3rd person singular, present tense, active voice and indicative mood. The word tesaṃ (their) forms an attribute to the subject. It is in genitive plural.


    This verse speaks about the very well known fact, so stressed by the modern psychology. If we succumb to thoughts of injustice done to us, if we always consider ourselves "poor things" that the "strong ones" play with, our suffering and hatred will never disappear, but it will increase, because "they" will feel our insecurity and will enjoy inflicting pain on us even more. "Oh, how could he (or she, for that matter) do this to me? It is so unfair!" By this thinking we will certainly not prevent these things to happen in the future again.

    How to deal with this situation is spoken about in the following verse.

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