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從《摩奴法典》到『八敬法』 ── 淺談佛教對性別的歧視與認知=From Manusmriti to “Eight Garudhammas” : On Gender Discrimination and Cognition in Buddhism
Author 吳一忠 =Wu, Yi-zhong
Source 法印學報=Journal of Dharma Seals
Pages117 - 146
Location桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Author: Alumnus of Hongshi College,Master's Degree in Graduate Institute of Religious Studies, Nanhua University.
Keyword八敬法=Eight Garudhammas; 摩奴法典=Manusmriti; 比丘尼=Bhikkhuni; 男女平權=Gender equality; 眾生平等=lives being equal

The Eight Garudhammas has always been a taboo in Buddhism. Up until 1999, the Venerable Shih Chao-Hwei began to publish the articles and books to doubt its authenticity and discuss its after effects. In 2001, she declared the ‘Manifesto of abolishing the Eight Garudhammas’ in a conference and tore the articles of the‘Eight Garudhammas’to shreds. This movement was a shock for Buddhists, the problem of the Eight Garudhammas has made known to public since then.
For 2,500 years Buddhism has been a religion of male-dominant. The reason is that Buddhism has a strong tie with Indian tradition. The phenomenon of androcentricity still exists nowadays. In democratic countries, to voice is to give the opinions, the opinions made by people lead to the possibility of changing current social and political environment. The movement of abolishing the Eight Garudhammas from the Venerable Shih Chao-Hwei revolutionized the traditional thought entrenched in Buddhism. Since then, gender equality was progressively implemented in the Buddhists of Taiwan. It is a big step in promoting gender equality.
I intend to make a contrast between the Manusmriti (I made reference to the articles which set Indian female in an inferior state) and the ‘Eight Garudhammas’. My main task is to stress the relevance between these two kinds of precepts instead of looking into the texts. The Manusmriti was compiled by the priests in Brahmanism according to Vedas and Indian custom, it covered the aspects of society, culture, religious life and rituals. In that period, the Manusmriti has some influence on Buddhism. The Caste system in Indian mapped out by the Manusmriti created the social isolation and inequality. In addition, the patriarchy entrenched in Indian society made the gender inequality even worse. In this circumstance, women suffered from unfair treatment, the Bhikkhunis in Buddhism are also included.
In modern society, Buddhists have to pick out the inappropriate parts of the‘Eight Garudhammas’through investigating the classics and history, and therefore make a rational decision in their life. For Bhikkhus, they should abandon Male chauvinism from their mentality; on the other hand, Bhikkhunis should not see themselves as inferior to Bhikkhus.
In the process of promulgating the Buddha Dharma, the Buddha Dharma per se should be adjusted based on the current era and society and the precepts should also be reasonably altered. Namely(隨方毘尼), For Bhikkhunis, they should abandon the traditional thought of Male chauvinism; especially for the leaders in Buddhism, they should voice their opinions in order to obtain the women rights so that they can fulfill the expectation of ‘lives being equal’.
Table of contents一、前言 121
二、《摩奴法典》有關婦女的法條 122
三、何謂八敬法? 126
四、《摩奴法典》和『八敬法』的對照 129
五、陷入「斯德哥爾摩症候群」的迷思 133
六、結論 139
ISSN22241299 (P)
Information Source
Created date2020.06.12

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