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從《摩奴法典》到『八敬法』 ── 淺談佛教對性別的歧視與認知=From Manusmriti to “Eight Garudhammas” : On Gender Discrimination and Cognition in Buddhism
Author 吳一忠 =Wu, Yi-zhong
Source 法印學報=Journal of Dharma Seals
Volumen.10
Date2019.12
Pages117 - 146
Publisher財團法人弘誓文教基金會
Location桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者:佛教弘誓學院校友,南華大學宗教學研究所碩士
Author: Alumnus of Hongshi College,Master's Degree in Graduate Institute of Religious Studies, Nanhua University.
Keyword八敬法=Eight Garudhammas; 摩奴法典=Manusmriti; 比丘尼=Bhikkhuni; 男女平權=Gender equality; 眾生平等=lives being equal
Abstract佛教『八敬法』一向是避而不談的忌諱,一九九九年昭慧法師首先發難,發表文章及出版專書,質疑『八敬法』的真偽及衍生的後遺症;接著於二〇〇一年學術研討會發表「廢除八敬法宣言」,並撕毀『八敬法』條文,引起佛教界的震撼,使得『八敬法』正式浮上檯面。
兩千五百多年來,佛教多由比丘所領導,之所以形成這個現象,和印度傳統有著絕對的關係,即使到了二十一世紀,男尊女卑依舊存在。民主自由國家,有聲音就是有意見,有意見就有可能改變,昭慧法師「廢除八敬法」的做法,代表改革思想的興起,男女平權的觀念逐漸落實,不管未來成效如何,總算踏出了第一步。
筆者引用《摩奴法典》有關歧視印度女性的條文,與『八敬法』做概略的對比,重點不在文獻的探討,而是兩者之間的關聯性。《摩奴法典》為古印度婆羅門教祭司根據吠陀經典與沿襲的風俗習慣,所編成的聖典,內容涵蓋社會文化、宗教生活和儀式等,佛教不免受到影響。《摩奴法典》制訂種姓制度,造成明顯的「隔離」和「不平等」,在根深蒂固的父權體制下,性別歧視更是嚴重,身處封閉的印度社會,女性受到不對等的對待,即使佛教的比丘尼亦難免。
佛教徒身處資訊科技世代,面對『八敬法』的爭議,除了透過經典和歷史探源,爬梳『八敬法』不如法之處,做出明理的抉擇,男子在思想行為方面,應拋開沙文主義的心態,不該傲慢狂妄,令男尊女卑無限上綱;女子要具備自信尊嚴,不應將女身視為業障或厭惡,才是正確的觀念。
佛法在傳遞的過程中,因世事無常變化,必須順應時代、地區、風俗做適度的調整,戒律也要合理的斟酌取捨,亦即「隨方毘尼」。最重要的是比丘尼,與其期待男性的覺醒,不如跳脫傳統的窠臼,拋棄固有的舊思維,尤其是宗教領導人,應主動發聲爭取權利,才能真正落實眾生平等的精神。

The Eight Garudhammas has always been a taboo in Buddhism. Up until 1999, the Venerable Shih Chao-Hwei began to publish the articles and books to doubt its authenticity and discuss its after effects. In 2001, she declared the ‘Manifesto of abolishing the Eight Garudhammas’ in a conference and tore the articles of the‘Eight Garudhammas’to shreds. This movement was a shock for Buddhists, the problem of the Eight Garudhammas has made known to public since then.
For 2,500 years Buddhism has been a religion of male-dominant. The reason is that Buddhism has a strong tie with Indian tradition. The phenomenon of androcentricity still exists nowadays. In democratic countries, to voice is to give the opinions, the opinions made by people lead to the possibility of changing current social and political environment. The movement of abolishing the Eight Garudhammas from the Venerable Shih Chao-Hwei revolutionized the traditional thought entrenched in Buddhism. Since then, gender equality was progressively implemented in the Buddhists of Taiwan. It is a big step in promoting gender equality.
I intend to make a contrast between the Manusmriti (I made reference to the articles which set Indian female in an inferior state) and the ‘Eight Garudhammas’. My main task is to stress the relevance between these two kinds of precepts instead of looking into the texts. The Manusmriti was compiled by the priests in Brahmanism according to Vedas and Indian custom, it covered the aspects of society, culture, religious life and rituals. In that period, the Manusmriti has some influence on Buddhism. The Caste system in Indian mapped out by the Manusmriti created the social isolation and inequality. In addition, the patriarchy entrenched in Indian society made the gender inequality even worse. In this circumstance, women suffered from unfair treatment, the Bhikkhunis in Buddhism are also included.
In modern society, Buddhists have to pick out the inappropriate parts of the‘Eight Garudhammas’through investigating the classics and history, and therefore make a rational decision in their life. For Bhikkhus, they should abandon Male chauvinism from their mentality; on the other hand, Bhikkhunis should not see themselves as inferior to Bhikkhus.
In the process of promulgating the Buddha Dharma, the Buddha Dharma per se should be adjusted based on the current era and society and the precepts should also be reasonably altered. Namely(隨方毘尼), For Bhikkhunis, they should abandon the traditional thought of Male chauvinism; especially for the leaders in Buddhism, they should voice their opinions in order to obtain the women rights so that they can fulfill the expectation of ‘lives being equal’.
Table of contents一、前言 121
二、《摩奴法典》有關婦女的法條 122
三、何謂八敬法? 126
四、《摩奴法典》和『八敬法』的對照 129
五、陷入「斯德哥爾摩症候群」的迷思 133
六、結論 139
ISSN22241299 (P)
Information Source
Hits12
Created date2020.06.12



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