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吳越諸王(893-978)與佛教=The Kings of Wuyue (893-978) and Buddhism
Author 黃繹勳 (著)=Huang, Yi-hsun (au.)
Source 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
Volumen.17
Date2004.07
Pages123 - 147
Publisher中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
Publisher Url http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
Location新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese; 英文=English
Note作者為中華佛學研究所助理研究員
Keyword吳越=Wuyue; 佛教=Buddhism; 錢鏐=Qian Liu; 錢弘俶=Qian Hongchu; 佛寺經幢=Buddhist temples and dhāra?ī-sūtra stone pillars
Abstract中國從唐朝衰亡,到宋朝未興前之間,大約動盪了一個世紀,吳越國(893-978)就是在這艱難之處境中求安定與發展。近期間,學者對於宋朝佛教研究越深,就越肯定吳越對延續佛教在宋朝之發展的貢獻。本論文之主要目的在於探討吳越武肅王錢鏐,文穆王錢元瓘,忠獻王錢弘佐和忠懿王錢弘俶與佛教之關係,以明瞭吳越諸王如何護持佛教和對佛教發展之影響。

吳越建國初期,藉由錢鏐之建佛寺和護持佛教僧人等活動,我們可看出其個人之宗教信仰,佛教之持咒法門提供了他鞏固國土之依靠,佛教超度亡靈之思想和儀式也幫助錢鏐疏解其在戰場殺戮之罪惡感。之後,佛教亦提供了信仰的管道,讓錢元瓘等諸王表達他們求現世安穩,來世解脫的期望。最後,吳越降宋前,錢弘俶藉由立陀羅尼經幢,抒發其保疆衛國之心願。因此,吳越諸王與佛教之關係,隨不同之時期而改變。吳越諸王護持佛教之動機包含了他們的政治意圖,但也應出自於他們個人之佛教信仰。

對於佛教之發展而言,錢氏諸王之貢獻甚大,他們廣建佛寺經幢,因此在吳越地區提供了佛教僧人一個安定和護持的環境,也使一般民眾得以有機會親近寺院、僧人和佛法,對於佛教之普遍弘揚非常有幫助。最後,忠懿王錢弘俶遣使收集流散海外之佛教典籍,他並使吳越地區之佛教免於後周世宗毀佛之難。

不過,在此期間,我們也可見到吳越王延用了唐代之僧官制度,也掌有任命僧人住持寺院和監管戒壇之權,介入僧團之戒臘制度和寺院清規之施行,此外,忠懿王錢弘俶並建佛寺附帶家祠的功能,使佛寺兼具世俗之用途,因此削弱了佛教僧團自主之權力和僧人自治之能力。但是,總而評之,吳越諸王對佛教之影響是利多於弊的,他們的護法政策,使得吳越地區在寺院之建設和僧人之護持上,都保存和奠定了佛教在宋朝繼續發展之良好基礎。

The Wuyue Kingdom 吳越國 (893-978) falls in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907-960) following the Tang (618-907). With the fall of the Tang, most of China had collapsed into a state of turmoil. Although Wuyue ranked among the smaller states of that period, it became one of the wealthiest owing to its prosperous economy and considerable peace lasting eighty-six years. As scholarship on Chinese Buddhism proceeds to the Song dynasty, scholars are discovering the importance of the Wuyue Kingdom in terms of the continuation of Buddhism into the Song. This paper examines the relationship between Buddhism and each of the four Wuyue kings: King Wusu Qian Liu 武肅王錢鏐, King Wenmu Qian Yuanguan 文穆王錢元瓘, King Zhongxian Qian Hongzuo 忠獻王錢弘佐, and King Zhongyi Qian Hongchu 忠懿王錢弘俶. The ways in which they supported Buddhism as well as their influence on the development of Buddhism will be examined.

The Wuyue kings built numerous Buddhist temples and dhāra?ī-sūtra stone pillars (jingchuang 經幢). By doing this they provided a supportive environment for Buddhist monks and nuns and propagated Buddhism among common people. Furthermore, the last king of Wuyue, Zhongyi, helped bring the Tiantai master Zhiyi’s works back from Korea. It was also because of King Zhongyi’s protection that the coastal area of southeastern China escaped the last Buddhist persecution.

Although all the Wuyue kings believed in Buddhism, the nature of each king’s relationship with Buddhism varied. In the early period of the kingdom, his construction of monasteries and support for Buddhist monks helped King Wusu acquire renown as a virtuous king. He believed that Buddhist rituals and the practice of dhāra?ī chanting for protection helped him consolidate the state. Buddhism also provided a religious means to release the king’s guilt over slaughter in battles. During the middle period of peace and prosperity, Buddhism offered a path for rulers such as King Wenmu to express their wishes for fortune, happiness and even liberation in the present and future. As the Wuyue kingdom came to a close, King Zhongyi expressed his wishes to protect the kingdom by erecting dhāra?ī-sūtra stone pillars. Thus Buddhism served both political and religious functions for each of the Wuyue kings.At the same time, the Wuyue kings also controlled the Sa?gha by implementing the Tang system of Sa?gha officials and by claiming the authority to appoint abbots and ordination supervisors. They also interfered with the monastic seniority system and the implementation of monastic “pure regulations.” King Zhongyi built Buddhist temples to be used as ancestral shrine for worshipping his parents and grandfather. As a result, the Sa?gha’s powers of autonomy and and self-regulation were weakened.

However, in balancing the overall effect of the Wuyue kings’ policies on Buddhism, the benefits outweigh the disadvantages. The disadvantages could be excellent experience for the Sa?gha in subsequent periods in dealing with issues of balancing political support and autonomy. All in all, the Wuyue kings’ contributions of building Buddhist temples and support for the Sa?gha established a firm foundation for the development of Buddhism in the Song and thereafter.
Table of contents前言 125
一、武肅王錢鏐(893-932年在位) 127
二、文穆王錢元瓘(932-942年在位) 133
三、忠獻王錢弘佐(942-947年在位) 134
四、忠懿王錢弘俶(947-978年在位) 136
總結 140
ISSN10177132 (P)
Categories佛教-歷史; 歷史; 雕塑造像; 經幢
Dynasty五代十國-十國-吳越
Regions浙江(杭州)
Hits2231
Created date2005.05.03
Modified date2018.02.27



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