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有關「自然律」與「自然道德律」之佛法觀點=The Buddhist Viewpoint of Natural Law and Natural Moral Law
Author 釋昭慧 (著)=Shih, Chao-hui (au.)
Source 哲學與文化=Monthly Review of Philosophy and Culture
Volumev.33 n.3 (總號=n.382)
Pages83 - 104
Publisher Url
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword自然律=Natural law; 自然道德律=Natural moral law; 神律=Divine law; 有情; 緣起=Pratītya-samutpāda; 我愛=Ego desire; 無明=Avidyā; 煩惱=Vexation; 業=Karma; 尸羅=sīla; 毗奈耶=Vinaya
Abstract本文介紹「自然律」與「自然道德律」之定義與內涵,並簡述中西哲學與神學的重要觀點,特別例舉多瑪斯‧阿奎納(Thomas Aquinas)有關「永恆律」、「自然律」、「神律」與「人律」之律法層級,以及一般道德與超性道德的理論。亦述及奧坎、路德、喀爾文等反對或修正「自然道德律」理論之神學主張,以及古希臘與啟蒙工程中宗教與道德分離的倫理學說。其次討論有關「自然律」的佛法觀點-一切現象因緣和合、離散之「緣起」法則,以及生命具足「無明」與「我愛」的現象。人皆有之的「我愛」,亦可反向開展出易地而處的「自通之法」(同情共感的能力)。自通之法、緣起法相的相關性與緣起法性的平等性,即是自然律本身蘊涵著「道德律」的三大要理。依佛法以觀,無論是道德規範,還是道德原則,都源出自然道德律。即使是佛陀所制訂的規範,也還是依憑自然道德律,令人在持守過程中產生良好的道德慣性。道德與福樂兩者,都不是源出神的啟示與恩典,而且依佛教的「德、福一致」論,諸神還是因其德行而成得「生天」的福報。希圖獲得善報所從事的善行,有其不敢為惡或勉力為善之相對價值,且能招感有限量的福報。然而人不宜為了福報而為德,必須依「自通之法」而持戒,依「三輪體空」或「不著四相」而布施,方能預入聖流。

This article introduces the definition and connotation of the term Natural Law and Natural Moral Law. It also explains briefly the important viewpoints of the Chinese and Western philosophy and theology. The article especially cites Thomas Aquinas' view on the gradations of law among the 'Eternal Law', 'Natural Law'. 'Divine Law' and 'Human Law' and his theories on common moral and the transcendent moral. This article also explains the stand points of Ockham, Martin Luther and John Calvin, in either objecting or amending the theological aspect of the theory of Natural Moral Law. It also touches on the ethical studies of the segregation between moral and religions during ancient Greece and the Enlightenment Project. Secondly, there is a discussion on Buddhism's perspective of the Natural Law -the Law of Dependent Origination that explains that all phenomena arises and ceases according to causes and conditions and that our life is filled with ignorance and self-love (ego desire). The 'self-love' that everyone is equipped can in fact be cultivated into an opposite direction so that one develops a sense of sharing the feelings of others by putting oneself in others' shoes. The practice of putting oneself in others' shoes, the interrelationship among the dependent originated phenomena and the equanimity of the dharma nature of dependent origination, are the three major principles of Moral Law encompassed in the Natural Law. From the perspective of Buddhism, moral norms and moral principles all originate from Natural Moral Law. Even the norms formulated by the Buddha are still founded on Natural Moral Law to help practitioners develop wholesome moral habits during the process of practice. Moral and meritorious joy are not the apocalyptic or kindness bestowed by a god. According to Buddhism's theory of consistency in virtues and merits, the gods reap the merits of being reborn in heaven according to the virtuous deeds that they have done in the past. The practice of wholesome deeds with the hope of gaining good rewards; has its relative values in preventing one from doing bad and try to be good. However this can only lead to a limited degree of meritorious reward. We should not practice virtues just for the sake of gaining meritorious rewards. We should practice upholding precepts with the mind of putting ourselves in others positions, practice giving with the realisation of emptiness in three aspects (namely, realise that the donor, recipient and the item that is being donated are empty in nature) or non-attachment to the four forms. In this way we can pave our way to the noble stage.
ISSN10158383 (P); 10158383 (E)
Created date2007.04.09
Modified date2017.10.17

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