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TSO-CH'AN=坐禪
Author 釋聖嚴 (著)=Shih, Sheng-yen (au.)
Source 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
Volumen.2
Date1988.10
Pages359 - 387
Publisher中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
Publisher Url http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
Location新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese; 英文=English
Note作者釋聖嚴為中華佛學研究所所長、東吳大學哲學系教授。
KeywordZen Buddhism=Zazen Buddhism=禪宗; 坐禪
AbstractThe present paper deals with tso-ch'an through a twofold approach, firstly by tracing back its historical roots, and secondly by describing the actual practice. Textual evidence demonstrates that the Chinese term tso-ch'an came into use centuries before the Ch'an School itself emerged serving as a technical term in both translated scriptures and indigeneous Chinese treatises on meditation. This brief excursion into the history of early Chinese Buddhism is followed by the clarification of the relationship between dhyāna (ch'an) and samādhi. Their Indian roots are clearly pointed out. The paper then proceeds to an analysis of the dvelopment of tso-ch'an in the context of Chinese Buddhism, Primarily the period of the first Ch'an Patriarchs. It is shown that since Bodhidharma, the Indian monk who was to be celebrated as the First Ch'an Patriarch in China, the masters in this line of transmission practiced ch'an in order to develop wisdom without going through the intermediate stage of samādhi. Besides Bodhidharma, the Fourth Patriarch Tao-hsin, the Fifth Patriarch Hung-jen, and the Sixth Patriarch Hui-neng are introduced. Their individual practices-and occasionally their writings-are discussed and respective background information is given in order to elucidate the conceptual changes that took place. In the case of Huineng, for example, sitting (tso) was not only not taken as necessary, but as a potential obstacle. The second part of the presest paper is devoted to the practical aspect of tso-ch'an. The three stages of regulating one's body, breath, and mind are dealt with in detail. General instructions conclude this exhaustive description, and a number of anecdotes illustrate certain misapprehension about practice before the author sets out to explain tso-ch'an as understood by the Ch'an School. In this context, the principles of both Silent Illumination Ch'an and Kung-an Ch'an are Presented by way of a wealth of historical stories. A note on the practice of tso-ch'an after enlightenment concludes the paper.

本文從兩個步驟去研究坐禪,首先追溯它的歷史根源,繼之描述正確的修習之道。依據有關靜坐冥想的文獻顯示,不論在翻譯的佛經還是本土的佛學著作中,「坐禪」作為一個專有名詞來使用,早在禪宗成立的數世紀以前。這是依循中國佛教早期歷史作簡單探索,進而弄清楚「禪那」與「三昧」之間的關聯而得。當然,也將它們的印度根源清楚地加以闡明。之後,本文簡單地從禪門初祖的時代背景,去分析「坐禪」的發展跟整個中華佛教的關聯。自從天竺僧人菩提達磨被恭奉為華夏禪門的初祖而後,繼統的禪師們都不經「三昧」的中介階段便直接修禪以發展智慧。除了菩提達磨,本文也論述禪門四祖道信、五祖弘忍和六祖慧能不同背景和他們個別的修習情況,偶爾也討論一下他們的著述,用以闡明何以有上述觀念上的轉變?以慧能為例,他認為坐功不但並非必需,反而成修禪上的潛在障礙。本文第二部份,專論坐禪的真貌,詳述如何在修禪時調節一個人的身、心與呼吸。在闡釋禪門所熟知的坐禪之前,作者先作一概括性的開示,包括廣泛的叙述;和提供若干逸聞趣事來解釋一些人們對修禪的誤解。本文藉著豐富的歷史故事,來介紹「默照禪」與「公案禪」的原則。更對禪悟後仍需繼續坐禪之故有專節述及。
ISSN10177132 (P)
Hits1463
Created date1998.07.22
Modified date2017.06.15



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