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從「三聚淨戒」論菩薩戒的時空適應
Author 釋聖嚴 (著)=Shih, Sheng-yen (au.)
Source 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
Volumen.6
Date1993.06
Pages1 - 30
Publisher中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
Publisher Url http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
Location新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese; 英文=English
Keyword戒律=Precepts=Vianya=Sila; 菩薩戒; 三聚淨戒; 佛教戒律; 十善道
Abstract菩薩戒是聲聞律儀戒以外的別解脫戒,乃是大乘佛教為
菩薩所設. 聲聞戒共有三歸,五戒,八戒,十戒,具足戒,
在家佛教徒僅受至前三種,出家佛教徒則可受至第五種. 菩
薩戒不屬於聲聞律儀,所以在家人亦得受持; 菩薩戒可含攝
聲聞律儀,故大乘佛教的出家人都應受持.

菩薩戒以觀空為著眼,以淨心為宗旨,以發無上菩提心
為基礎. 所以菩薩戒既可涵攝一切佛法,也可執簡御繁,僅
用三句話來包括,那就是三聚淨戒的(1) 律儀戒,(2) 攝善
法戒,(3) 攝眾生戒. 亦即是止惡,行善,利益眾生.

三聚淨戒的內容,淵源於《阿含》聖典,經過大乘的《
般若》,《涅槃》,《華嚴》,《維摩》等經的醞釀,至《
瑜伽師地論》而集大成,出現了輕重戒相的條文,及授戒
悔罪的儀則. 再經《瓔珞》及《梵網》二經,而使菩薩戒的
弘揚,盛行於中國,新羅,日本.

三聚淨戒的規定,既可約也可繁; 既是難受難持,又可
使人覺得易受易持. 其內容既有緊收,也有寬放. 故可因應
時空的需要而舒卷自如. 在俗則俗,在僧則僧,能高則高,
不能高便求其次. 若能把握住三聚淨戒的基本原則,如三歸
,五戒,十善,十重禁戒等,便可遊刃有餘地,靈活運用於
久遠廣大的時空間.

The Bodhisattva Precept is the `pratimoksa`
precept beyond `Sravakayana` Precept. It is
stipulated for the bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism.
The `Sravakayana` Precept includes Three Refuges,
Five Precepts, Eight Precepts, Ten Precepts and Full
Precepts. The lay Buddhists can receive only the
former three kinds of precept while the sangha up to
the fifth. The Bodhisattva Precept doesn't belong to
`Sravakayana` Precept. Accordingly,the laity can
also receive the Bodhisattva Precept. The
Bodhisattva Precept can encompass the `Sravakayana`
Precept. So,the Mahayana Buddhist sangha should
receive it.

The Bodhisattva Precept takes the meditation
on emptiness as its focus, the purification of mind
as its objective and the arousing of ultimate
bodhi-citta as basis. Therefore,the Bodhisattva
Precept can not only encompass all Buddha dharmas
but also control complicated matters with simple
principles. The Three Cumulative Pure Precepts can
be said having three phases:1. The precept of
regulating behaviour,2. The precept of doing
goodness, and 3. The precept of saving the sentient
beings. In other words, the three Cumulative Pure
Precepts have three functions, i.e. not doing evil,
doing goodness and benefitting the sentient beings.

Contents of the Three Cumulative Pure Precepts
originated in the `Agama Sutras`. After the
fermentation of several Mahayana sutras such as
`Prajna Sutra`, `Mahaparinirvana Sutra` ,
`Avatamsaka-maha-vaipulya Sutra`, `Vimalakirti
Sutra`,etc.,it was culminated in the `Yogacarya
bhumi Sastra` which mentions the code of light and
heavy precepts as well as the rituals of transmitting
precepts and making repentance. Again through the
propagation of the Strung Gems Sutra and the
Brahman's Net Sutra, the Bodhisattva Precept has
become very popular in China, Korea and Japan.

The requirement of the Three Cumulative Pure
Precepts can be either simple or complex,either
hard to receive and hard to observe or easy to
receive and easy to observe. Its contents can be
performed in either tight or loose way. Therefore it
can adapt to the needs of time and space and thus
operate freely. If it is applied to laity,it will
become laity precept. If it is applied to sangha, it
will become sangha precept. If it can be observed at
a higher level,it will become a precepts of higher
level. If cannot be observed at a higher level,it
will become a precept lower level.

If we can hold the basic principles of the
Three Cumulative Precepts such as the Three Refuges,
the Five Precepts, the Ten Virtues, the Ten Heavy
Prohibitive Precepts, etc.,we may freely apply it
in the long and vast time and space with great ease.
ISSN10177132 (P)
Hits1958
Created date1998.07.22
Modified date2017.06.15



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