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戒律與禪定
Author 釋惠敏 (著)=Shih, Hui-min (au.)
Source 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
Volumen.6
Date1993.06
Pages31 - 54
Publisher中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
Publisher Url http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
Location新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese; 英文=English
Keyword戒律=Precepts=Vianya=Sila; 禪定=Concentration=Dhyana; 定資糧; 佛教戒律; 聲聞地; 資糧論
Abstract南北傳諸廣律中皆記載:有十種利益故,世尊制立戒律
. 如《四分律》云:「(1)攝取於僧,(2)令僧歡喜,(3)
令僧安樂,(4)令未信者信,(5)已信者令增長,(6)難調
者令調,(7)慚愧者得安樂,(8)斷現在有漏,(9)斷未來
有漏,(10)正法得久住」. 其中,一部分的利益是增助佛教
整體的,例如:(1)-(3) 是為令僧團和合與安樂; (6),(7)
是為令僧團清淨,(4)是令信徒起信,(5)增信; (10)是為令
佛法得以久住. 此外,另一部分 (8),(9) 的利益是增助個
人修行的. 這種增助個人修行方面的戒律之利益,則是本文
所要探究的主題,特別是對「戒律如何增助禪定之修行」
的問題. 在此將以《瑜伽師地論》之「聲聞地」為主資料
來作詳細的說明.

首先,在「聲聞地」中,將修行禪定的預備條件稱為
「定資糧」 (`samadhi-sambhara`),其內容為戒律儀
(戒之防護),根律儀 (六根之防護),於食知量,初夜後夜
覺寤瑜伽 (初夜與後夜不眠不休地修行),正知而住乃至沙
門莊嚴 (沙門之美德) 等項目. 將此與「聲聞地」之十三種
「離欲道資糧」 (`vairagya-sambhara`) 比對後,可知
與「離欲道資量」之 (4) 戒律儀,(5) 根律儀..(13) 沙門
莊嚴等之名稱相合. 又「定資糧」中,從「戒律儀」到「
正知而住」之項目,與「聲聞地」所提出的十四種「涅槃法
緣」 (`parinirvana-pratyaya`) 之 (5) 戒律儀,(6)
根律儀,(7) 於食知量,(8) 初夜後夜常勤修習覺寤瑜伽,
(9) 正知而住之名稱亦相合.

其中,若單從名稱來看,與戒律直接有關的修行禪定的
預備條件只有「戒律儀」而已. 但若根據無著菩薩所著《六
門教授習定論》的說法,「根律儀」,「於食知量」,「初
夜後夜覺寤瑜伽」,「正知而住」此四者是使戒律清淨之四
種要素 (戒淨四因). 因此可以說:「戒律儀」再加上此四
者,則成增助禪定之戒學. 「聲聞地」將「戒律儀」依「
阿含」之戒學的傳統而分成「安住淨戒」等六句來說明,然
後再將此六段以三種特徵 (相) 及三種性質 (性) 來分析.
又將戒律的功德譬喻成如塗香,薰香般能令人歡喜. 在「根
律儀」的部分,則以「正念」之防守,持續為方法,防護心
意,使六根不受外境的誘惑,不令煩惱流入內心.

在日常生活,則正確地知道飲食與睡眠的量,並且作適
當的調節. 關於「於食知量」方面,正確地思擇:飲食的目
的不是為貪愛,放逸,是為修行而養身,所以應不多不少
適量地攝食. 「初夜後夜覺寤瑜伽」則是說:不貪愛睡眠,
連初夜與後夜也充分利用,或行或坐除去蓋障,淨修其心,
僅在中夜養息. 此外,在日常生活起居,行動亦都能正確地
知道自己的一舉一動是否適宜,這便是「正知而住」之修行.

因此,我們可以說「正念」與「正知」是使戒律清淨之
關鍵. 除此外,依瑜伽行派的說法,「正念」與「正知」
亦是獲得禪定的修行要點.

The record that Buddha founded Buddhist
Precepts on ten reasons, can be traced to the
`Vinaya-pitaka` of all different sects. Among ten
reasons, some are the reasons for the excellence and
prosperity of whole Buddhism,and some are the
reasons for personal improvement of the practice.
The present article mainly uses the material of
`Sravakabhumi`,and especially focuses on the
subject of how the Buddhist Precepts improve the
practice of Meditation.

In `Sravakabhumi`,the requisites of
Meditation practice (`samadhi-sambhara`) include
the restraint of morality and sense organs, knowing
the amount of food,practice of staying awake in the
beginning and end of the night,conduct with
awareness... and the adequacy of the ascetic.
Besides the restraint of morality,(1) the restraint
of sense organs, (2) knowing the amount of food,(3)
practice of staying awake in the beginning and end
of the night,(4) conduct with awareness are also
related with Buddhist Precepts.

First of all,"the restraint of morality" is
explained into six phrases according to the
traditional instruction of Buddhist Precepts.
Moreover these six phrases are analyzed by three
characteristics and properties. And ointment or
perfume and so on are used to admire the merit of
Precepts as similes. Next,one's mind is guarded by
mindfulness, keeping from the sinful,unvirtous
natures flowing into the mind by way of sense
organs. This practice is called "the restraint of
sense organs".

About "knowing the amount of food",the
practitioner should considerate the purpose of
taking food,not for indulgence or fun and so forth,
but simply for maintenance,so he eats moderate food
not too much, and not too little. Then one purifies
his mind from obscuring natures by means of walking
and sitting during the day,during the beginning and
end of the night,only sleeping in the middle of the
night. This is called "practice of staying awake in
the beginning and end of the night". At last,"the
conduct with awareness" means one conducts himself
with awareness while he does every action outdoors
and indoors.

Therefore,we can say "mindfulness" and
"awareness" are the key words of practice of
Buddhist Precepts. And according to the theory of
`Yogacara-school`,this two points can also improve
the practices of Meditation.
ISSN10177132 (P)
Hits1081
Created date1998.07.22
Modified date2017.06.15



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