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淨覺及其《「注」般若波羅密多心經》與其校本
Author 楊曾文 (著)=Yang, Zeng-wen (au.)
Source 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
Volumen.6
Date1993.06
Pages237 - 261
Publisher中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
Publisher Url http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
Location新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese; 英文=English
Keyword淨覺; 佛教經典=Sutra; 禪宗=Zen Buddhism=Zazen Buddhism; 南宗; 《注般若波羅蜜多心經》; 敦煌寫本; 般若空
Abstract在中國禪宗發展史上,以神秀為代表的北宗曾長期流行
以長安和洛陽為中心的北方地區,影響很大. 唐後期以後,
慧能創立的南宗迅速風行全國,發展成禪宗的主流,北宗逐
漸衰微. 與此相應,禪宗的史書,禪法論著,也多是南宗的
著述,而北宗的史書文獻在進入宋以後漸湮沒無聞. 本世
紀二十年代以後,中日學者從敦煌遺書中發現了大量早期禪
宗文獻,其中關於北宗的史書以唐淨覺的《楞伽師資記》,
杜朏的《傳法寶紀》二書最為有名,從中可以瞭解禪宗早期
的歷史和北宗對禪法的主主張.

本文據有關資料對《楞伽師資記》的作者淨覺(683-?)
的生平事蹟作了考察,並對他所著的《注般若波羅蜜多心經
》的思想作了分析介紹. 所用《注般若波羅蜜多心經》的本
子是敦煌名士任子宜於1935年在敦煌千佛山之上寺發現的,
史學家向達1943年曾目睹並在《西征小記》的文章中向世
人介紹過,現保存在敦煌縣博物館中.

本文對淨覺的家世及出家前後師事神秀,慧安,玄賾的
經歷等作了考證. 說淨覺在太行山靈泉谷寫了《楞伽師資記
》,此書是在繼承其師玄賾《楞伽人法志》的基礎上寫的.
淨覺在此另著有《金剛般若理鏡》一卷,久佚. 開元十五年
(727) 他應請到金州注釋《般若心經》,此即《注般若波羅
蜜多心經》.

筆者在淨覺《注般若心經》思想的介紹中,認為他對經
文的注釋,可看作是他對禪法的理論主張. 淨覺據般若空思
想,對世俗世界及其一切觀念,言教作了徹底的否定,認為
最高的認識境界是在精神上達到「空無所得」,由此而得超
凡入聖的至上智慧. 本文又通過分析認為,淨覺據中觀「不
二」法門,主張出世與入世相通,說「生死性即涅槃」,眾
生可在現實生活中修證成佛. 這種主張接近南宗的禪法理論
. 文後所附《注般若波羅蜜多心經》全文,是以敦煌博物館
所藏抄本 (編號七七) 為底本,參考敦煌文書斯坦因4556號
(藏倫敦大英博物館) 的照片和日本柳田聖山的校本 (載其
《初期禪宗史書的研究《而校訂的). 本文的發表,將為研
究禪宗早期歷史和思想,提供新的資料.

In the history of the Chinese Ch'an School,
the Northern School represented by Shen-hsiu
flourished for a long time in the areas around
Ch'ang-an and Lo-yang out in the late T'ang the
Southern School which had been founded by Huineng
spread rapidly all over the country while the
Northern School declined. In accordance with this
development,histories of the Ch'an School and
treatises dealing with meditation practice belong
mostly to the southern School. The Literature of the
Northern School vanished during the Sung Dynasty. In
the 1920's Chinese and Japanese scholars discovered
among the Tun-huang manuscripts a great number of
early Ch'an texts among which `Ching-Chueh's`
Leng-ch'ieh shih-tzu chi and Tu Fei's Ch'uan fa-pao
chi are the most important chronicles of the
Northern School. They enable us to understand the
early history of the Ch'an School and the main
meditation related ideas of the Northern School.

In the present paper the life of `Ching-chueh`
(683-?) is explored and the ideas behind his Heart
`Sutra` Commentary are analyzed. The said commentary
was discovered in 1935. His existence was made
public eight years later by Hsiany Ta. Now it is
kept at the Tun-huang District Museum.

`Ching-chueh's` family background and his
studies with Shen-hsiu,Hui-an,and `Hsuan-tse` are
critically researched. It was found that he wrote
the leng-ch'ieh shih-tzu chi on the `Ling-ch'uan`
Valley at Mt. T'ai-hang on the basis of `Hsuan-tse's`
leng-ch'ieh jen-fa chih. at the same Location,
`Ching-chueh` authored a one-fascicle commentary on
the Diamond `sutra` which is not extant any more. In
727,following an invitation,he wrote his Heart
`sutra` Commentary in Chin-chou.

The present writer believes that one can take
the thoughts expressed in the Heart `sutra` Commentary
as `Ching-chueh's` theories concerning Ch'an
meditation. Based on the `prajnaparamita` idea of
emptiness `Ching-chueh` negates thoroughly this world
and all concepts and verbal teachings assuming that
the highest form of knowledge is to reach "emptiness
without attainment" and from there to gain
transcendental wisdom. The present writer is of the
opinion that `Ching-chueh` employed the Madhyamaka
method of "non-duality" and held that "the very
nature of samsara is `nirvana` "wherefore one can
attain Buddhahood through practice in everyday life.
This reasoning is quite close to the theories of the
Southern School.

The complete text of the `sutra` Silna
Commentary following the appendix has been
critically edited on the basis of the Tun-huang
Museum manuscript which was compared to the Landon S
4556 manuscript and Yanagida's critical edition.

This paper often new materials concerning the
ISSN10177132 (P)
Hits1163
Created date1998.07.22
Modified date2017.06.15



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