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十善業道是菩薩戒的共軌論
Author 釋聖嚴 (著)=Shih, Sheng-yen (au.)
Source 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
Volumen.8
Date1995.07
Pages17 - 40
Publisher中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
Publisher Url http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
Location新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese; 英文=English
Keyword五戒; 十善法; 八正道; 三聚淨戒; 菩薩戒
Abstract五戒與十善,一向被認為是人天善法,且在別解脫
戒中,雖有七眾戒,並以五戒為基本,卻未以十善法列入
七眾的別解脫戒. 而至於在家與出家共同受持的大乘菩薩
戒,雖有從大乘經論中集出的菩薩戒本,也有三聚淨戒作
菩薩戒的總綱,卻未能將十善法作為菩薩戒的基礎來處理
,以致漢傳的大乘菩薩戒,徒具嚴格的受持形式,而缺少
易學易持的實用效果.

本文基於此問題的癥結所在,詳細查考大小乘諸經
論,介紹說明十善法不僅是人天善法,也是如《大智度論
》所說︰「十善為總相戒」,又說︰「十善則攝一切戒」
. 十善是世間倫理的根本,是佛教七眾別解脫戒的根本,
也是菩薩戒的根本.

本文從阿含部諸經,阿毘曇部諸論,大乘各期經典,
大乘諸論典,及從印度佛教,漢傳大乘,藏傳大乘諸論
師的著述中,找出有關於十善法的內容,雖僅身三. 口四
及意三的十條,而其涵蓋層面則可淺可深,可狹可廣,並
且在凡則凡,在聖則聖,遇小即小,遇大即大,內外道同
轍,僧俗眾共軌,世出世間,有佛無佛,都能適用,又易
實踐的道德軌範. 十善法具無限的包容性和伸縮性,所
以也是極富彈性的菩薩戒法.

古代漢傳的大乘佛教諸大師們,對菩薩戒的觀點,
僅採用少數幾部聖典,例如《梵網》,《瓔珞》,《瑜伽
》,《地持》等經論,未能廣涉大小乘諸經論,也未將藏
傳及南傳的諸聖典中對菩薩戒的根源及其開展,作廣泛
的探討. 本文則從對十善法的研究,發現了漢,藏,巴
利三種語系的聖典中,均有脈絡分明的共通性.

因此,本文主張︰既然已在大小乘諸聖典中,明確地
發現了易受,易行,易持的十善法為最根本的菩薩戒,就
該及時調整,把已往以《梵網經》為菩薩戒受持準則的觀
念和作法,轉成以十善法配合三聚淨戒為受持菩薩戒準則
的觀念和作法,這是回歸佛陀本懷的無上功德.

The panca-'sila (five precepts) and the
das 'akus'ala-karmin (ten virtues) have always
been thought of as merely virtuous practices that
lead to human or heavenly rebirth. Even though the
pratimoksa-samvara (precepts for individual-
emancipation) hold the panca-s' la (five precepts)
as their foundation,and include the 'sila
(precepts) for all the seven-fold assemblies
(i.e. bhiksu,bhiksun,s'ramanera, 'sramanerika,
'siksamana upasaka and upasika) ,they exclude the
das'aku'sala-karmin as a part of the pratimoksa-
samvara of the seven-fold assemblies. Although
the Mahayana Bodhisattva-'slas, observed by both
the laity and left-homers, are compiled from
Mahayana 'sutras and 'sastras, and hold the
tri-vidha-'sila (three collective pure precepts)
as their general axiom,none regard the das
'akus'ala-karmin as their foundation.Because of
this, the Chinese Buddhists only carry on the
formality of the external strict requirements by
adhering to the Bodhisattva-s'la and lack the
genuine effect of the practical and applicable
sila that can be more readily learned and observed.

This paper is the detailed research of this
issue through the Mahayana and Hinayana sutras and
sastras and proposes that the das'akus'ala-karmin
is not only a virtuous practice that merely leads
to human or heavenly rebirth, but according to the
Mahaprajn ~ aparamita-'sastra which states ︰ "The
da'saku'sala-karmin embraces all 'slas" and else
where it asserts ︰."..... the das'akus'ala-karmin
assimilates all 'slas." The das'akus'ala-karmin is
not only the basis of secular ethics, but is the
foundation of the pratimoksa-samvara for the
seven-fold assemblies and the Bodhisattva-'silas.

The present paper traces the inherent meaning
and the implications of the das'akus'ala-karm in
the Agamas, Abhidharma-ko'sa, the various Mahayana
sutras and 'sastras of different periods and
systems, as well as from the various writings of
exegete from Indian,Chinese,and Tibetan Buddhst
traditions.Even though the das'akus'ala-karmin
entails three aspects concerning the physical
body,four aspects dealing with speech and three
of consciousnesses, its different facets of
implications can be both shallow and profound;
narrow and comprehensive. Moreover,to the
ordinary it is profane,to the sages it is holy,
it can be both minor and lofty; it's even
practiced both by Buddhists and non-Buddhists; it
is practiced also by left-homers and laity.Whether
(the context in which) it is worldly or
world-transcending,whether there is a Buddha or
not -- the das'akus'ala-karmin could be applicable
and practically consummated within the criteria of
ethics and virtue. In nature,the das'akus
'ala-karmin can be comprehensive and flexible.
Therefore,the das 'akus'ala-karmin is the
ultimate meritorious and most flexible form of
Bodhisattva-'sla.

The view points towards the Bodhisattva-'sla
of the ancient Chinese Mahayana masters wh
ISSN10177132 (P)
Hits1706
Created date1998.07.22
Modified date2017.06.16



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