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美國「禪定與教育」博士論文之剖析
Author 釋惠敏 (著)=Shih, Hui-min (au.)
Source 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
Volumen.8
Date1995.07
Pages417 - 453
Publisher中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
Publisher Url http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
Location新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese; 英文=English
Keyword禪定=Concentration=Dhyana; 教育; 博士論文
Abstract本文首先介紹美國研究「禪定與教育」之博士論文
(1969年 ~ 1991年) 基本資料. 這是以 education 與
meditation 為關鍵詞,從 UMI (University Microfilms
Incorporation) 之電腦光碟「學位論文提要資料庫」 (
UMI's Dissertation Abstracts Database) 檢索出的.

其次從下列幾個角度來分析研究在美國研究「禪定與
教育」之論文,了解其研究概況之一端︰

(一) 年別篇數︰ 1960年代只有一篇,1970年代則有 36
篇,1980年代已增加至 56 篇,1990年代1991年部
分論文已有 10 篇.

(二) 學科 (subject) 篇數︰ 最多的是教育心理學與輔
導諮商教育,有關體育的也不少. 其他則為關於臨
床心理學,健康教育,高等教育等相關領域.

(三) 所測驗的「量數」 (measure) ︰ 學界都嘗試藉著
實驗等科學方法,將禪定之功效用在教育和心理
治療,諮商等各方面,此亦即該研究所測驗的「量
數」. 可概分為︰(1)個人發展及潛能發展,(2)團
體成長,(3)智力方面,(4)學習方面,(5)諮商,
(6)心理治療,(7)教育機構,(8)生理,(9)疾病,
(10)體育,(11)藝術,(12)其他等幾大類.

(四) 實驗的對象︰可分為︰ (1)學生,(2)教師,(3)諮
商人員,(4)受輔者,(5)運動員,(6)病患,(7)傳
教士,(8)罪犯等幾大類,而其年齡則由 4 歲到
71 歲不等.

(五) 研究方法︰可分為︰(1)實驗或比較法,(2)理論建
立或整合法,(3)數據分析法,(4)個案研究法,
(5)其它.

(六) 使用的禪定種類︰可分為︰(1)超覺靜坐,(2)佛教
禪定︰①禪,②念住,③觀想,④西藏佛教禪定,
(3)持咒禪定,(4)漸進放鬆法,(5)醫療標準化禪
定,(6)瑜伽,(7)西方禪定,(8)合氣道,(9)氣功
,(10)太極拳.

(七) 對禪定本身的探討與其它相關研究︰可分為︰ (1)
禪定抗拒之心理本質,(2)依規律度,次數,性別
之功效差異,(3)不同禪定或放鬆技巧間的比較
效應,(4)相容性︰ ①與西方心理學,②與人本心
理治療,③與 Arthur Chickering 的學生發展理
論,(5)腦鬆懈波連貫性,(6)禪定中的語言結構,
(7)基督教徒對禪定之態度,(8)瑜伽呼吸方式與腦
半球支配優勢力作用,(9)經由禪定而產生之靈性
成長與創造力.

⅗This paper first introduces basic data
concerning doctorate dissertations on meditation
and education issued in the United States from
1969 to 1991. Education and meditation are the key
words here,which were used to call data from the
Dissertation Abatracts Database of the University
Microfilms Incorporation.

American dissertations on meditation and
education are analyzed from the following angles,
to gain an overall understanding of the work done.

1. The number of dissertaions issued
annually. There was only one dissertation in the
1960's. 36 related dissertations were issued in
the 1970's.This increased to 56 in the 1980's, and
ten from 1990 to 1991.

2. The number of dissertations according to
subject.Most related dissertations were issued in
Educational Psychology and Guidance & Counselling
Education,with some in Physical Education.Others
were issued in fields pertaining to Clinical
Psychology,Health Education,Higher Education
etcetra.

3. Measure of studies.Scholars attempted to use
scientific methods such as experimentation to use
the results of meditation in education and
psychological therapy and counselling; this is the
measure studied by such research. These fell into
twelve groups:(1) personal development and
development of potential. (2) group growth.
(3) intelligence. (4)learning. (5)counselling.
(6)psychological therapy. (7) educational
institutions. (8) physiology. (9) sickness.
(10) physical education. (11)art. (12)
miscellaneous.

4. Experimental subjects.Eight groups of
subjects took part in the experiments listed.
(1) students. (2) teachers. (3) counsellors.
(4) persons being counselled. (5)athletes.
(6) patients. (7) ministers. (8) criminals.
Subjects ranged from 4 to 71 years old.

5. Experimental methods. Five categories of
methods were used. (1) experimentation or
comparison. (2) construction or integration of
theory. (3) mathematical analysis. (4) case
research. (5) miscellaneous.

6. Types of meditation tested.10 types of
meditation were tested. (1) Transcendental
Meditation. (2) Buddhist meditation:①Zen.
mindfulness. ③visualization. ④Tibetan
Buddhist meditation. (3) mantra meditation.
(4) progressive relaxation. (5) clinically
standardized meditation. (6) yoga. (7) western
meditation. (8) Aikido. (9) Qi Gong. (10) Taiji
exercize.

7. Investigation of meditation itself and
related research. Relevant material falls into 9
categories. (1) psychological nature of
resistance to meditation. (2) differences in
effectiveness according to regularity,frequency,
and sex. (3) comparison of effectiveness
ISSN10177132 (P)
Hits1185
Created date1998.07.22
Modified date2017.06.16



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