華岡佛學學報=Hwakang Buddhist Journal
|Pages||21 - 37|
|Location||臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]|
|Content type||期刊論文=Journal Article|
|Keyword||看話禪; 大慧宗杲; 禪宗=Zen Buddhism=Zazen Buddhism; 默照禪|
|Abstract||南宋一代的佛教風潮，不是：「上者信於清淨之說，下者信於禍褔之報」，則「儒釋之交遊不過倡和，以詩談論以道，否則為盧山結社之舉耳.」 (佛祖統記卷四七)，而很少有積極的宗教精神. 大慧為挽救此種頹風及其救國的熱誠，極力倡導活殺自在的看話與忠君愛國的思想. 因此，不怕權勢，不怕得罪教界長老，而大聲叱咤：「古人公案上起疑，日用塵勞中起疑，皆是邪魔眷屬」;「所謂工夫者，思量世間塵勞底心.」|
大慧禪的本質是以儒家的「仁義禮智信」之「學」，加以「格物忠恕」之「道」，而主張「性即道」的. 案此種思想是繼承圜悟的「理事法界」和雲門宗的儒教倫理思想及雪峰義存以來的福建佛教的方法而來，並想以此消除當代社會的不安與穩固民心. 這宗教熱誠演成主戰論者的救國佛教，而開拓了有主體性，個性，積極性，倫理性的禪風. 總之，大慧禪是中國祖師禪中的奇葩，且是唯一能震撼當代知識份子思想之禪法.
Which trends did Buddhism in the Southern Sung Dynasty (1127-1279 A.D.) display? "Knowledgeable persons had faith in the teaching of purity，and commoners believed in the retributive character of good fortune and bad luck." "Friendly contacts between Confucians and Buddhists did not exceed
presenting each other with poems discussing truth, or forming societies like Hui- yuan did on Mt.Lu." (Fo-tsu t'ungchi，fasc. 47) Active religious spirit was a rarity. In order to save from this degenerated state of affairs and out of sincere patriotism，Master Ta-hui put forth every effort to promote k'an-hua ch'an as well as loyalty towards the emperor and the country. He was not afraid of those in power，nor did he mind offending elderly masters, but shouted angrily: "People of the past who raised doubts about kung-ans ，raised doubts in everyday impure，exhausting states of mind，were nothing but relatives of the devil." "Achievement in pratice means the mind that
is pondering worldly impure，exhausting states of mind."
Ta-hui's ch'an is, essentially，the Confucian study of benevolence，justice，etiquette，wisdom and honesty，the way of thorough investigation and magnanimity，and the idea that nature equals truth. This type of thought continues Yuan -wu's concept of "the dharma realm of conditioned phenomena and unconditioned principle，"Confucian influenced ethical thought of the Yun-men school，and the method of Buddhism in Fukien after Hsueh-feng. It was intended to eliminate social disturbance and give the people spiritual security. This religious devotion developed into patriotic Buddhism that even advocated war，and marked the beginning of individual，active，and ethical ch'an. To sum it up，Ta-hui's ch'an，an extraordinary product of Chinese patriarch ch'an，was the only ch'an teaching that could shake up the intellectuals
at that time.
|Table of contents||一、前語 21|
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