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明末中國的淨土教人物及其思想
Author 釋聖嚴 (著)=Shih, Sheng-yen (au.)
Source 華岡佛學學報=Hwakang Buddhist Journal
Volumen.8
Date1985.10
Pages1 - 76
Publisher中華學術院佛學研究所
Publisher Url http://www.chibs.edu.tw/
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Keyword淨土教; 明代佛教; 阿彌陀經; 唸佛法門; 雲棲袾宏; 袁宏道; 藕益智旭
Abstract淨土教在中國,自東晉迄明末,一千二百年間,淨土
教的撰述之被收入大正新修大藏經及卍續藏經中者,計七十
七種一百七十三卷. 而完成於明末一百年間的,即有二十四
種共七十一卷. 本文依據史傳及與淨土及禪有關的文獻,介
紹其人物,探討其著述,研究其思想,瞭解其實踐的方法及
態度. 明末淨土教的特色,是在以阿彌陀經為中心的持名念
佛法門之高揚,對「一心不亂」往生淨土之說的闡發,諸
家皆給淨土教以圓教大乘的地位. 例如雲棲袾宏及袁宏道,
係用華嚴作會通,無盡傳燈及藕益智旭,乃依天台為準則.
諸家各有出入,多半同以禪的立場為基礎. 名為禪淨雙修,
而其主張各異. 明末正統禪者之舉揚淨土者,僅得曹洞系下
的數人,其餘諸師,雖謂出於禪門而迴歸淨土,實則未嘗被
正統的禪宗所承認. 唯於明末時,大師級的佛教人物,均
非出於正統的禪者,他們重視修持的方法,及方法所依據
的理論之發揮,因之反而成了近世中國佛教思潮的主流.

In the period between the Eastern Chin and the
late Ming dynasties. Chinese Pure Land teaching had
developed for 1200 years. Its writings incorporated
into the `Taisho Shinshu Daizokyo` and the Manji
Zoku `Zokyo` number 77 comprising 173 fascicles.
Among them 24 works in 71 fascicles were completed
in the one hundred years of the late Ming dynasty.

Based on historical records and biographies as
well as on documents related to the Pure Land and
Ch'an schools, the present paper introduces the
proponents of late Ming Pure Land. It discusses
their oeuver,studies their thought,and arrives at
an understanding of both their methods of and
attitude towards practice. The peculiar feature of
late Ming Pure Land teaching was the propagation of
the method of recollecting the Buddha by being
mindful of his name. This method was mainly based on
the `Sukhavati-vyuha`. As far as the late Ming
development of the theory of birth into the pure
land by a "one-pointed,unconfused mind" is
concerned,all proponents conceded the status of
"perfect teaching `Mahayana` "to pure Land. Yun-hsi
Chu-hung and Yuan Hung-tao,for example,achieved
this understanding by employing Hua-yen concepts
while Wu-chin Ch'uan-teng and Ou-i Chih-hsu
orientated themselves on T'ien-t'ai.

Despite their differences, most proponents
adopted basically the Ch'an point of view. They
spoke of the cultivation of both Ch'an and Pure Land
but their ideas were not uniform. Among the orthodox
Ch'an monks in the late Ming dynasty we find only a
few people who belonged to the Ts'ao-tung tradition
praising Pure Land. The rest,inspite of the claim
of being Ch'an followers who turned to Pure Land,
was actually never recognized by the orthodox Ch'an
schools. Yet none of the late Ming Buddhists with
the stature of a great master was an orthodox Ch'an
monk. On the contrary,they were people who paid
attention to the methods of oultivation and the
development of the theories underlying their
practice thus forming the mainstream of modern
Chinese Buddhist thought.
Table of contents壹、緒言 2
貳、明末的淨土教人物 5
參、明末的淨土教著述 15
肆、明末淨土教文獻的立場 22
伍、明末淨土教的其他文獻 36
陸、淨土教的反對論者 46
柒、明末淨土教的修證方法 51
一、雲棲祩宏的修證方法 51
二、無盡傳燈的修證方法 54
三、蕅益智旭的修證方法 56
捌、明末禪者的淨土思想 62

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Created date1998.07.22
Modified date2017.08.17



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