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淨土的淵源及其演變
Author 楊白衣
Source 華岡佛學學報=Hwakang Buddhist Journal
Volumen.8
Date1985.10
Pages77 - 125
Publisher中華學術院佛學研究所
Publisher Url http://www.chibs.edu.tw/
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Keyword淨土; 阿彌陀佛思想; 末法思想; 易行道; 難行道; 慧遠善; 導; 慈愍
Abstract淨土本為大乘佛教之理想,亦為其共修的目的,故種類
極多,但中唐以後的中國佛教,一說淨土則幾專指彌陀法門
而言. 佛教為印度文化的一環,故其理想必有其來源,本文
特注重於此,試作淨土及阿彌陀佛思想的探源. 對淨土的看
法及其修行法門,有印度式的,中國式的,日本式的等等,
但本文仍偏重於印度,中國式的方法,至於其他的法門則略
而少談,這有待日後補述.

淨土與末法思想的關係極深,經典中也到處敘述,但這
是一種事實預言呢? 抑或是一種思想,歷史觀呢? 對此則見
仁見智而不同. 不過,中國歷代的淨土教家,一致地把它當
作歷史事實,故致力於淨土法門的弘揚. 這宣傳很適合歷
代苦難民眾的渴求,故甚受歡迎與信奉,中國淨土法門的普
遍就是起因於此.

往生淨土本僅為成佛過程的一種中途站,並非最終目的
,等於赴外國留學,但淨土教徒有此種觀念的甚少,大多把
它當成目的,因此沒回國服務 -- 廣度眾生的意念. 此為
淨土法門被譏為消極,自私的理由. 要知,諸佛創立淨土的
目的與苦心,在廣渡眾生,利益眾生,故有許多適應廣大
群眾的淨土及其方法,這是時下佛弟子應反省的問題. 故
本文特介紹了各種淨土及其所謂的易行道,難行道的真諦,
以匡正一般信徒的錯解. 若不懂此,易行道反而變為難行道
,而「易往無人」了. 本論文敘述各種念佛法門之餘,特介
紹被遺忘了的韓國留學僧金和上無相禪師的總持門的三句念
佛法門. 這是根據《大乘起信論》的本覺思想而來的法門.
其方法易懂,易修,實為值得弘揚的淨土法門之一. 可惜很
少人知道有此法門.

Pure Lands are originally,the ideal of
`Mahayana` Buddhism and the aim of its communal
cultivation. Thus they exist in an extraordinary
variety. In Chinese Buddhism,however,after
mid-T'ang times "pure land" indicated almost
exclusively practice connected with `Amitabha`.

Buddhism is a part of Indian culture wherefore
the roots of its ideal have to be found there. The
present paper pays special attention to this problem
and attempts at probing into the origins of pure
land and `Amitabha` thought. The notion of pure land
and related practices differ in India, China, Japan,
etc. As the present Writer concentrates on Indian
and Chinese methods of cultivation the other had to
be passed over and require supplementary desription
in the future.

The relationship between pure land thought and
the idea of a dharma ending age (mo-fa) to which
numerous passages in the `sutras` refer,are closely
related. But does the teaching of an age of dharma
decline prophesy a fact or is it just a kind of
ideology or view of history? Opinions differ. As to
the Chinese adherents to the pure Land teaching,
they regarded mo-fa as a historical fact thus
putting forth every effort to spread Pure Land
practice. What they propagated suited,throughout
history,the fervent hopes of the suffering masses
very much. They welcomed this teaching eagerly and
put strong faith in it. Herein lies the reason for
the general acceptance of Pure Land practice in
China.

To be born into a pure land constituted
originally only a station on the road to
Buddhahood-just like going abroad to pursue advanced
studies- and by no means the final aim. Yet this
understanding was rather uncommon among followers of
the Pure Land teaching. The majority thought of it
as the aim and did therefore not entertain the idea
of "returning to the motherland and doing one's
service." i.e. saving all being. On this ground the
Pure Land teaching was criticized as passiv and
selfish. We should realize that Buddhas' purpose in
establishing pure lands through great hardships is
to save and benifit beings. Thus there exist many
pure lands with their respective methods suiting the
broad masses, a fact worth to be given due
consideration by today's Buddhists.

The present paper introduces for this reason all
kinds of pure lands and the truth of the so called
easy and difficult paths in order to rectify the
general believer's misunderstanding. If one does not
grasp these principles the easy path will turn into
the difficult one and "there will be no one who is
born into the pure land though it would be easy."
Besides describing the various common practices of
recollecting the Buddha the author introduces
specially the long forgotten method of recollecting
the Buddha by way of three sentences developed by
the Korean monk Kim `upadhyaya`,ch'an master
Mu-Sang. This practice is based on the idea of
original awakening wh
Table of contents一、序論 79
二、本論 83
(一)淨土的來源及其成立年代 83
(二)阿彌陀佛的來源 92
(三)淨土的種類及其中心思想 98
(四)中國的淨土思想及祖師 105
(五)金和上無相禪師的念佛法門 117
三、結論 121
Hits1211
Created date1998.07.22
Modified date2017.08.22



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