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Author 釋昭慧
Source 國際佛學研究=Annual of International Buddhistic Studies
Pages269 - 282
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword僧伽制度; 增上三學; 戒具足; 戒律=Precepts=Vianya=Sila; 毗尼
Abstract僧伽規制,不但有個人的修道意義,有團體的共融意義,還有維持團體水平的社會意義. 「依法以攝僧」,而「法」的學習即是「三增上學」. 若所學包括日常生活的言行舉止,那就是「應當學」,這是依佛身教而學的不成文規制.


戒學的形成,分三個階段,依次是「四清靜」,「戒具足」,「戒成就」. 後者已到佛陀正式制戒的階段,是為「制教」,前者尚在條文化之先,是屬「化教」. 前者可比喻為法律中之「習慣法」,後者則為「成文法」.

習慣法要轉化為成文法,須已是一般慣行之事實,而在程序方面正式經過團體承認. 甚至在成文法發達後,習慣法有時仍為法律的支柱與成文法的根源,而成文法有時會隨時空而變更,同理,戒律雖已制立,仍不免有「開緣」,以配合實際環境之需要.

The rules of assembly society (sangha) include the way of self-cultivation personally,the way of interaction of whole community,and their social sense. The learning of dharma, by which one can become a monk within dharma, is the three increased studies of learning (discipline,meditation,and wisdom). As the manner and behavior in ordinary life is considered,thereby the learning is indeed a worthy learning,which is the unwritten rules or laws in the light of embodiment of Buddha.

There are two principles in the life of community,i.e. "the doctrinal unity in views and explanations" (to feel the taste of Buddha's truth with others) and "the economic unity in community of goods" (to share the offerings with others). Both of them are of the six points of reverent unity in amonastery.

The formation of learning of discipline has three stages:the four all-embracing virtues, the full commands of disciplinary process, and the achievement of discipline. The final stage is the formal "discipline" of Buddha's teaching,the others are "converting" (stages of enlighnment). We may call the converting as "customary laws."

The transform from convertings to discipline is based on many accomplished fact,which are consistently used as rules as well as those rules are admitted sequentially by the whole community. Even so,sometimes the customary laws still support the written laws, which are originated from the former. In other word,the written laws modify at all times when they under an actual circumstance. Similarly,the rules of assembly society -- the discipline may be suited to the new condition.
Created date1998.07.22; 2002.07.11
Modified date2018.01.23

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