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結戒原委與制戒原理=The Facts of the Establishment of the Vinaya and the Principles behind Setting the Rules
Author 釋昭慧 =Shih, Chao-hui
Source 法光學壇=Dharma Light Lyceum
Volumen.1
Date1997
Pages11 - 23
Publisher法光佛教文化研究所=Fa-kuang Institute of Buddhist Studies
Publisher Url http://fakuang.org.tw/
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note-613
Keyword結戒; 制戒
Abstract佛教初創,僧團品質精純,所以到半月布薩,只要用「教授波羅提木叉來做道德的策勉也就夠了,不須要嚴格地制立有強制性的規約. 待佛教開展以後,檀越的護持越來越豐富,難免有俗人混濫,違法而住的現象. 於是佛立律為輔,藉制定「威德波羅提木叉」做為輔助的工具,違者議處,以儆效尤.

「毗尼」有訓練和調伏的意味,這原是包括經典與律典的所有調伏煩惱之道 (戒定慧三增上學),但在僧伽制度的開展中,毗尼成僧眾戒增上學 (波羅提木叉與犍度的內容) 的總稱.

有三類制戒原因:
一. 為個人除障道法.
二. 為僧團得以和樂清淨,而提供修道,宏法的好環境.
三. 為避世譏嫌,使世人敬信三寶.

僧團當然不可能走專制之路,因這與緣起法的基本原理不符. 所以佛教從創教以來,一直就沒全國性或世界性的教會教廷,也未嘗產生類似教宗的最高領袖. 欲杜絕當前佛教界的亂象,不能採取治絲益棼的中央高控制教會模式,反而應改變僧團中受到中國父權社會影響的「師長權威」制度,而回歸到戒律的大眾直接民主過程,在一定範圍 (大界) 內實行直接民主,而中央教會的間接民主,應是在基層寺院健全的情況之下,做一些寺院所無法獨力完成的,對內對外協調統籌的決策.

In the early days of Buddhism, the sangha was of high, pure quality. Thus it was enough to use the "teaching pratimok.sa" as moral encouragement during the half-monthly communal congregation, there was no need to enforce strict regulations. With the further development of Buddhism and increasing offerings made by lay sponsors, however, worldly minded people inevitably crept into sangha ranks and lived there in defiance of the dharma. Only then did the Buddha additionally establish the vinaya employing the "authority pratimok.sa" as a corrective means. Those transgressing it were punished in order to deter others from unlawful behaviour.

"Vinaya" has the double connotation of "training" and "taming." Originally it referred to all methods to tame mental afflictions (the higher trainings in ethics, concentration, and wisdom) that are contained in the discourse and rule collections, yet in the course of the development of the sangha as an institution its meaning narrowed down to the sangha's higher training in ethics, i.e. the pratimok.sa and the skandhaka.

There were three reasons for establishing rules:(1) to remove obstacles from the practice path of individuals; (2) to create an optimal environment for the practice and spread of the teaching in which the sangha might happily and purely live; and (3) to avoid criticism and let the laity engender respect towards the triple jewel.

Of course, it was impossible for the sangha to develop into a dictatorial direction because this would have been in contradiction to the basic principle of dependent origination. Thus there has never been a national or global "vatican" or a highest pope-like authority in the history of Buddhism. If we want to curb the disorderly phenomena presently rampant in the Buddhist community it would be dangerous to take the path of a powerful central authority. On the contrary, it is necessary to change the sangha system of "teacher's authority" which was influenced by the patriarchal nature of Chinese society, and return to direct democratic processes stipulated in the Vinaya by reintroducing direct democracy within certain boundaries while giving the responsibility for certain coordinating policies temples and monasteries themselves are not in a position to carry out to the indirect democracy of a central authority -- under the condition of a sound system in the temples and monasteries on the grass-root level.
Table of contents一. 結戒原委
二. 毘尼五義
三. 「作持」要義
四. 制戒原理
五. 直接民主
Hits1107
Created date1998.04.28; 2002.07.09
Modified date2017.08.23



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