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「心淨則佛土淨」之考察
Author 釋惠敏 (著)=Shih, Hui-min (au.)
Source 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
Volumen.10
Date1997.07
Pages25 - 44
Publisher中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
Publisher Url http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
Location新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese; 英文=English
Keyword維摩詰經; 心淨; 成就眾生; 淨佛國土; The Teaching of Vimalakiirti suutra; pure mind; deliver living beings; purify Buddha-land
Abstract《維摩詰經》「心淨則佛土淨」之說與古來的「唯心淨土」,乃至現代的「人間淨土」之主張有密切的關係。漢傳佛教之諸注解家如何解釋此篇經文?「心淨則佛土淨」之命題為何可以成立?此「淨土行」之具體內容為何?如何論此「淨土行」之階漸與次第?其與「心淨故眾生淨」有何關係?吾人是否能依此而作為《維摩詰經》是「唯心論」的證據?「心淨」應作何解釋?本文考察,比較現存諸漢譯本與諸注疏之解釋,並參考《大智度論》等相關佛典的說明,及今人之研究成果來討論以上諸問題後,有如下幾點的結論:
一、「發阿耨多羅三藐三菩提心」的菩薩為「成就眾生」故,須「願取佛國」,修行「淨佛國土」。
二、十八「淨土之行」:行淨則眾生淨,眾生淨則佛土淨。菩薩依十八種「淨土之行」令自與彼眾生皆「行淨」,故說「行淨則眾生淨」。如是同行眾生(眾生淨)來生菩薩成佛之國土,故說「眾生淨則佛土淨」。
三、《遠記》,《吉疏》依《肇注》「淨土行之階漸說」,配以菩薩之種姓位,解行位……七地(成就眾生),八地(佛土淨),九地(說法淨),十地(智慧淨),金剛心等覺地(心淨),佛地(一切功德淨)之菩薩乃至成佛十三階位漸次。但與《大智度論》之七地(自利具足),八地,九地(自利利他,所謂教化眾生,淨佛世界)的說法不同。
四、若依《奘譯》與《基疏》,則是以「十八種淨土行->清淨有情->嚴淨佛土->轉法曲度化有情」之模式說明。這與《大智度論》中所引《般若經》所說「饒益一切眾生已淨佛國土。淨佛國度已得一切種智。得一切種智已轉法論,轉法論已安立眾生於三乘,令入無餘涅槃」的說明有相通處。
五、「心淨則佛土淨」不可解釋為:自心淨,則淨土「自成」,而是心淨則眾生淨,眾生淨則佛土淨。其關鍵點在「眾生淨」。
六、「心性本淨」應採取如《般若經》與中觀的思想,作「非心」,「是心非心」,「空寂心」的解釋,比較合乎《維摩詰經》的根本思想。《基疏》將「心淨」解釋為「第八識淨」,「淨」若解釋為淨化之「行淨」而非「本淨」是正確的解釋;但將「心淨」之「心」解釋為「第八阿賴耶識」則是屬於瑜伽行派的看法。

There is a very close relation between the concept that "To the Extent that the Mind of a Bodhisattva is Pure is his Buddha-land Purified" in The Teaching of Vimalakiirti suutra, the thought of Mind-only Pure Land, and "Earthly" Pure Land. How have Chinese commentator interpreted this statement? How did this statement become established? What, concretely, is Pure land Practice? How should the stages and steps in this progress be treated? How is this related to "The mind is pure; therefore, living beings are pure"? May we take this statement as evidence that The Teaching of Vimalakiirti asserts "mind-only"? How should the "pure
mind" be interpreted? This essay examines and compares extant Chinese translations of the suutra as well as commentators' interpretations. I refer to explanations in Naagaarjuna's Great Wisdom Discourse and other works
as well as reserchs done by modern scholars, to reach the following conclusions.

(1) For the disciplining and great favour of living beings, the bodhisattva who are on the path to supreme and perfect enlightenment acquire Buddha-land and practice the purification of his Buddha-lan.
(2) The eighteen practices for the purification of his Buddha-land:If practice is pur, living beings are pure; if living beings are pure, his Buddha-land is pure. By means of these eighteen practices, the
Bodhisattva purifies himself as well as all living beings; this is why it is said, "if practice is pure, then living beings are pure." The purified living beings of this practice ecome companions and reach his
Buddha-lan in their next life, which is why it is said, "if living beings are pure, then his Buddha-land is pure."
(3) The Hui-yuan's( 慧遠, 523 ~ 592) Commentary and Chi-tsang's (吉藏, 549 ~ 623)Commentary cite "the theory of stages in practices for the purification of his Buddha-land" in the Seng-chao's (僧肇, 374? ~ 414)Commentary which they match with the thirteen Stages in the progress towards Buddhahood.
For example, the Bodhisattva Caste Stae, the Practice Progrss Stage...... the Seventh Stage is delivering living beings, the Eighth is the purification of his Buddha-lan, the Ninth is the purification of
teaching, the Tenth is the purified wisdom, the Diamond mind universal enlightenment Stage is the purified mind, and the Buddha Stage is the purified merit.
However, this conflicts with Naagaarjuna's Great Wisdom Discourse, in which the Seventh Stage is complete self-benefit, the Eighth and the Ninth are benefiting self and others, teaching living beings and his
Buddha-land may be purified.
(4) The Hsuan-tsang Translation and the Kui-ji's (窺基, 632 ~ 682) Commentary explain by means of the model that Eighteen practices for the purification of his Buddha-land -> Purify his Buddhaland -> Teach to deliver
living beings. This is similar to the quote in Naagaarjuna's Great Wisdom Discourse, form the Mahaapraj~naa-paaramita-suutra:"Benefit all living beings to purify his Buddha-land. Purifying his Buddha-land, all kinds of wisdom are attained. When all kinds of wisdom are attained, turn the Dharma Wheel
ISSN10177132 (P)
Hits1445
Created date1998.04.28
Modified date2017.06.16



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