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瑜伽菩薩戒本之心理與倫理觀=The Psychology and Ethics of the Yogācāra Bodhisattva Precepts
Author 釋惠敏 (著)=Ven. Hui-min (au.)
Source 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
Volumen.11
Date1998.07
Pages9 - 48
Publisher中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
Publisher Url http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
Location新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese; 英文=English
Keyword瑜伽菩薩戒本=Yogacara Bodhisattva Precepts; 心所=mental elements; 性罪=precept nature; 嫌恨=hate; 憐愍=sympathy
Abstract以往的注疏或研究大多是從六度、四攝的角度來整理瑜伽菩薩戒本,本文則以
統計、分析之方法,考察瑜伽菩薩戒本的心理觀與倫理觀。首先根據瑜伽行派
的定義,將瑜伽菩薩戒本有關之心所(心理作用),分「染違犯、非染違犯、
無違犯」三類,並配合瑜伽行派的煩惱心所分類說明之。其次,整理並統計
「染、非染、無違犯」所提到的各種心所及因緣,使菩薩行者認識各種心理狀
態,覺察某一種心理作用生起時,可能會引起那些行為而違犯菩薩戒條。
瑜伽菩薩戒與其他菩薩戒一樣,重視與四重戒相關的貪求、慳、忿、慢等心理
作用的防止;四十三輕戒方面,由統計可知,與「染違犯」相關的心所,以
「恨」──嫌恨(āghāta)等出現次數最多,達 19 次。若包括相關的忿、瞋恚
等,則總共有 25 次,約占 58%。可見「瞋恨心」是瑜伽菩薩戒主要對治之心理
作用。
與「非染違犯」相關的心所,以「懶惰、懈怠」 (ālasya-kausīdya)出現次數最多,達
19 次之多,約占 21%。可知「精進」也是瑜伽菩薩戒本所重視的心所。
與「無違犯」相關的因緣,以「調伏」出現次數最多,達 15 次,約占 35%。由於此等
行為出於善意,藉此讓眾生安於善法,所以被認定是「無違犯」。
由「第九、性罪不共戒」的分析可知,瑜伽菩薩戒本之善惡行為,是依據動機
與結果而判斷;若結果是「利他」、動機是「憐愍」,則可能是一種「善權方
便」,不僅不是惡的行為或言語,而且反而有很多功德。換言之,瑜伽菩薩戒
本並沒有預設任何行為是絕對善或惡(例如主張:殺人、偷盜等行為之性質一
定是惡,不論動機是否出於善意,結果是否有利於他人)。

Previously, most glosses and research on the Yogācāra Bodhisattva Precepts had
taken the vantage of the Six Paramitas or the Four Samgrahas. In this paper I use
statistics and analysis to examine the psychology and ethical standpoints of the
Yogācāra Bodhisattva Precepts.
First, I divide the contents of the Precepts concerning the mental elements into three
categories, the Polluted Breach, the Non-polluted Breach, and the Non-breach, in
accordance with the definitions of the Yogācāra School. This school's classes of
vexations are also used to clarify these three categories. Next, I have made
classifications and statistics for the mental elements conditions of the Polluted Breach,
the Non-polluted Breach, and the Non-breach, so that the Bodhisattva practitioner
may recognize each psychological state. In this way, when such moods occur, the
practitioner is aware that they may cause certain behaviors and breaches of the
precepts.
The Yogācāra Bodhisattva Precepts are similar to other Bodhisattva precepts in that
they emphasize preventing psychological conditions relating to the four main precepts
governing greed, stinginess, anger, and insolent to others. As to the 43 secondary
precepts, statistics show that moods motivated by hate (āghāta), springing from
Polluted Breach mental elements, are listed the most times (19). If the closely
related moods of anger and enmity are included, the count goes up to 25, accounting
for 58% of the total. From this we may see that 'hate' is the main objective of the
Yogācāra Boddhisttva Precepts.
In the category of Non-polluted breaches, laziness (ālasya-kausīdya) appears most
often, accounting for some 21% of the total with 19 appearances. This shows that
diligence is a key mental element of the Yogācāra Bodhisattva Precepts.
The conditions relating to Non-breaches most often appearing is taming and subduing,
at 15 times about 35% of the total. Motivated by good intent, this type of behavior
brings living creatures harmony with good dharma, so it is classified as a Non-breach.
Analyses of the Ninth, the some main crimes which are in special condition, shows
that the standards by which good and bad behavior are measured in the Precepts are
the motives and results. If the result is altruistic, and the motive is sympathy, this
behavior may be a sort of convenience. Such an act does not count as bad behavior or
language, but rather earns great merit. In other words, the Precepts do not designate
any particular action as being absolutely good or bad (such as maintaining that killing
or robbing and so on are absolutely bad regardless of whether or not the motive is
good and the results are altruistic.)
ISSN10177132 (P)
Hits894
Created date
Modified date2017.06.16



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