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「以戒為師」之意旨=The Real Meaning of "Taking the Vinaya as One's Master"
Author 釋昭慧 =Shih, Chao-hui
Source 法光學壇=Dharma Light Lyceum
Volumen.2
Date1998
Pages14 - 37
Publisher法光佛教文化研究所=Fa-kuang Institute of Buddhist Studies
Publisher Url http://fakuang.org.tw/
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note-613
Keyword歸依; 緣起=十二因緣=Pratityasamutpada; 緣起=pratitya-samutpada=conditions=paticca-samuppada; 緣起=paticca-samuppada=pratitya-samutpada=conditions; 僧團=叢林=Monastic Community=Buddhist Community; 僧伽=sajgha; 開悟=證悟=Satori=Enlightenment; 菩提達摩=菩提達磨=達摩=達磨=Bodhidharma; 無我=Anatman; 梵行=Pure living=Noble action; 教團; 涅槃=無為法=asamkrta-dharma; 涅槃=Parinibbana=Nibbana=Nirvana; 佛陀=Gautama Buddha; 佛; 尸羅=戒=command=Precept=sila=morality=rule=discipline=prohibition
Abstract佛滅度前,阿難請示:此後僧團將要「以誰為師」? 佛陀明確告知; 「我涅槃後,所說法戒 (波羅提木叉),即汝大師.」這只是在宣示制度規範 (法治) 的重要性,讓弟子們打破「人治」的迷思.

原來佛陀以「緣起無我」為法義的主軸,本於緣起法的證悟而創立的教團,不可能產生教皇或宗教之類的最高前威 -- 任何人都須要仰仗他人互相助成,因此大家地位平等. 故佛以身作則,明確宣告:「如來不言我持於眾,我攝於眾.」「當自歸依,歸依於法,勿他歸依.」

佛陀在僧伽中的地位,從精神層面或教化意義上而言,是絕對無可取代的. 但這種精神領袖可以說是建立在師生關係上,並未掌握支配僧團事務的絕對權力. 所以終佛之世,他一直努力轉「人治」而為「法治」,讓大家能依於「波羅提木叉」的規範,建立一個共和而清淨安樂的團體,不須要有「人存政舉,人亡政息」的危機.

但後代律師們據此以達成「毗尼至上」的結論,則並非佛陀本意. 因佛陀的教化是以「達摩」為中心,「毗尼」只是在正法的教化中,依著正法的精神而制訂的規範. 法與律間是輔車相依,甚至是「法主律從」的. 毗尼是維持修道生活的一種手段,對個人而言「梵行久住」才是目的; 對團體而言,「令正法久住」才是目的.

Before the Buddha passed into nirvana, Ananda asked him whom the sangha should rely on in
the future, and the Buddha replied unequivocally that "after my nirvana, the dharma-vinaya (pratimok.sa) which I have taught is going to be your master." This, however, is only a declaration on the importance of having a regulating system (the rule of law) so that the disciples could avoid falling prey to the myth of rule by man.

The Buddha's teachings centred originally around the idea of "selflessness due to dependent arising" and it was impossible that the sangha which was founded based on the realization of dependently arising phenomena should produce some popelike highest authority. Since everybody is dependant on the support offered by others, everyone is equal. The Buddha gave the example himself by clearly stating that "the Tathagata does not say 'I am controlling the sangha, I am in charge of the sangha aid:"Go to refuge to yourself and go to refuge to the dharma, but don't go to any other refuge!"

Looking at it from the viewpoints of spirituality and teaching, there is absolutely no one who could take the Buddha's position among the monks. This role of spiritual leader, however, is founded on the master-disciple relationship and does not imply an absolute authority to control all sangha affairs. Thus the Buddha tried his whole life to substitute rule by man through rule of law so that everyone could rely on the standard of the pratimok.sa. He established a republican, pure, and peace which didn't need to worry about the danger of "order as long as the man is there, and chaos after he's perished."

Nevertheless, later generations of vinaya masters came to the conclusion that "there is nothing higher than the vinaya" which is not at all what the Buddha wanted to say. The Buddha's teaching centres around the "dharma". "Vinaya" thus is nothing but a standard established within the teaching of the true norm, a standard in accordance with the spirit of saddharma. The relationship between dharma and vinaya is like that between wheel and cart,or even that of the dharma being in the and the vinaya in the secondary one. Vinaya is just a method to maintain a life devoted to practicing the path. For the individual, the aim is to "cause pure conduct to be maintained long", while for the community the aim is to "let the true dharma remain for a long time in this world."

Table of contents一. 前言
二. 大界 -- 僧事的適用範圍
三. 組織管理的三種形態
四. 「人治」社會的三種缺陷
五. 所說經戒,即是大師
六. 從「法律並舉」到「律主法從」
七. 從「佛在僧中」到「佛僧差別」
八. 當自歸依,歸依於法
九. 「接班人」的迷思
十. 結語
Hits1139
Created date1999.01.14; 2002.07.09
Modified date2017.08.23



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