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唐代宗密及其禪教會通論=The Tang Monk Tsung-mi and His Concept of Harmonization of Meditation and Doctrine
Author 楊曾文 (著)=Yang, Zeng-wen (au.)
Source 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
Volumen.12
Date1999.07
Pages219 - 235
Publisher中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
Publisher Url http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
Location新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese; 英文=English
Keyword宗密=Tsung-mi; 禪源諸詮集=Chan Yuan Zhu Quan Ji; 禪藏=Ch'an pitska; 禪宗=Ch'an school; 禪教會通=harmonization of Moditation and Doctrine
Abstract宗密 (780 ~ 841年) 是華嚴宗五祖,又是禪僧. 他的會通禪,教的著作和理論在中國禪宗史上佔有重要地位. 著有《圓覺經大疏抄》,《注華嚴法界觀門》,《原人論》等發揮華嚴宗教理,又應裴休之請著《中華傳心地禪門師資承襲圖》,大約在太和7年 (833年) 以後,集編《禪源諸詮集》,撰《禪源諸詮集都序》. 宗密所處的時代,禪宗與其它教派及禪宗內部諸派間已產生不少分歧乃至爭論. 宗密為此憂慮,決定出來會通禪,教. 他會通禪教的理論有兩個層次:一. 在以荷澤宗為正統的前提下,會通禪宗內部諸宗. 他雖奉荷澤宗為正統,但並不主張廢棄其它各宗,認為它們仍可以適應不同根基人們的需要而發揮作用. 禪教會通論. 宗密的禪教會通論在結構上可分為兩個層次,一是禪教同源論,二是禪教會通論. 宗密按照自己的見解,把禪宗諸派分為從低至高的三宗,又把佛教經論也按層次高低分為三教,認為上述三宗與三教是相應的,指明它們的一致處,加以會通. 會通的方法是先用三教的教理來印證禪宗三宗,證明它們彼此相應,使人消除對禪與教,此宗與彼宗的分別意識,達到與「無念」相契合的心境:「禪教雙忘,心佛俱寂」. 到達如此境地,從內心世界來說,念念無非是佛心; 從應機傳法來說,則句句皆是禪教. 教與禪相通,禪門三宗彼此補充,皆為引導眾生成佛之妙法. 這樣,也就沒北宗與南宗,荷澤與江西之爭了. 如果不站在會通的立場,而局限執守於一教一宗,那麼任何教法不僅對教化無利,反而有害.

Tsung-mi (780 ~ 841) is the fifth patriarch of the Hua-yan / Avatamsaka School,also he is a Chan master of Buddhism. He took a very important position in the history of Chinese Chan Buddhism. In his works such as Yuan Jie Da Shu Cao (the Great Commentary to the Sublime Bodhi Scripture),Zhu Hua Yuan Fa Jie Guang Men (the Commentary to the Perception of Dharma-Dhuda Door of Avatamsaka Sutra) and Yuan Ren Lun (On Human Being),etc.,Tsung-mi elucidated the teachings of the Avatamsaka school. In answering to the request of Pei-xiu (797 ~ 870),he wrote Zhong Hua Chuan Xin Di Chan Men Shi Zi Cheng Xi Tu (the Chart of the Lineage of Teaching Masters of Mind School of China). About the seventh year of Tai-he (833) of the T'ang Dynasty or later,Tsung-mi collected and edited Chan Yuan Zhu Quan Ji (the Collection of Original Teachings of Chan Buddhism) with a
important summarizing preface called Chan Yuan Zhu Quan Ji Du Xu. At Tsung-mi times, there were many different views and debates among the Chan school and between Chan Buddhism and other Buddhist schools which made Tsung-mi worried,thus he formulated a theoretical frame with double levels to integrate Chan
(meditation techniques or ways) and Jiao (Buddhist doctrine or teachings). On th first level,Tsung-mi regarded the sect of He-ze (Master Shen Hui) as orthodox,and he integrated the Chan and Jiao traditions by the way of holding all other thinking trends in Chan Buddhism subordinated to the sect of He-ze. He put
emphasis upon that all sects of Chan school were complementary and reciprocal. They were adaptable to different people with differentiated insights.
On the second level,his theory of integrating Chan and Jiao divided into two directions:one was the homogeny of Chan and Jiao,the other was the inter-permeation into each other of the two. According to his interpretation,Tsung-mi classified Chan Buddhism into three Zongs (adhering lines) from low to high
levels, and different Buddhist saying into three Jiao (teaching traditions) at various levels. He held that Zong and Jiao were should be complementary and harmonious. So they can be identical at the last. Tsung-mi verified the identity of the three sects of Chan Buddhism with the different teachings at the three levels and come to eliminate any artificial distinctions about Zong (sects)
and Jiao (teachings).Once a cultivator disregards intuitively difference between
Zong and Jiao,and identifies all sects, he,thus, achives the mental state agreeing with Wu-nian (no ideas):forgeting both Chan and Jiao,stilling mind and Buddha. At this state,every idea from the inner world tallies with the Buddha's mind. In practical level of preaching Buddhism,every word enjoys harmony with both Chan and Jiao. Chan and Jiao come to become a sublime whole,and the three sects melt into each other. Thereby,the best way leading to the
Buddha's state is exposed to all living beings, where there is neither northern and southern sects, nor rivalry between the sects of He-ze and Jiang-xi. If anyone deviates the standpoint and confines himself in a narrow viewpoint of a certain sect or doctrine,he will find it harmful and not beneficial to learn
about any teaching to enlightenment.
ISSN10177132 (P)
Hits1419
Created date1999.08.25
Modified date2017.08.31



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