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永明延壽的心性論=The Mind-Nature Theory of Yongming Yanshou
Author 楊曾文 (著)=Yang, Zeng-wen (au.)
Source 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
Volumen.13.1
Date2000.05
Pages457 - 477
Publisher中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
Publisher Url http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
Location新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese; 英文=English
Noten.13.1為第13期卷上‧中文篇
Keyword永明延壽; 心性論; 一心; 理事; 明心見性; Yongming Yanshou; Theory of Mind-Nature; One-Mindness; Noumena and Phenomena; Understanding the Mind and Seeing the Nature
Abstract延壽(904~975),俗姓王,錢塘人. 嗣法於法眼宗創始人
文益的弟子天台德韶(890~971). 延壽先在明州雪竇山傳
法,逐漸聞名. 宋建隆元年(960)吳越國王錢弘俶請延壽
至杭州靈隱山新建的寺院任第一代住持,翌年又請他到錢
塘永明大道場擔任第二代住持,門下弟子曾多達二千餘人.
一生著作很多,有《宗鏡錄》一百卷,《萬善同歸集》三
卷,《唯心訣》一卷,《注心賦》四卷,《觀心玄樞》一卷.

在這些著作中,他一方面系統論述以南宗為主體的所謂
「以心傳心,不立文字」,「直指人心,見性成佛」的禪宗
宗旨,同時又詳細引述其他宗派的心性理論和修行方法,
主張將兩者結合,做到禪教會通,理事雙修.

延壽的禪法理論標榜「以心為宗」,也就是以心為「尊」,
為「體」,為「智」. 意為尊奉大乘佛教的佛性學說為標準
觀察和評述世界萬物,人類社會及眾生煩惱生死和解脫
的問題; 以禪宗的心性論為中心,綜合評述大小乘教法和
諸宗的教義.

延壽認為在隋唐時期成立的佛教宗派中,唯有華嚴的教理
與禪宗最為一致. 他通過引述華嚴宗的一真(真如之心,
法性)法界緣起,理事圓融和「真妄交徹」的理論,來說明
佛性是世界的本體,煩惱與菩提,解脫的彼岸與世俗的此岸,
眾生與佛是互為容攝,相即不二的. 他也通過這種引證來為
他的「理事雙修」,禪教會通提供理論根據. 既然理,事
互相圓融,那麼自悟心性與修持諸種教法也應並行無礙,
以「傳心」,「見性」為宗旨的禪宗和其他教門諸宗也應當會通.

延壽是最早提出「明心」這個概念的. 在他那裡,「明心」
與「見性」,「明宗」,「達性」是個意思,都是體悟自性
(佛性,如來藏自性清淨心),認識佛在自心. 他認為禪僧
不僅應修持「理行」,還應修持種種「事行」,但同時發揮
華嚴宗「圓融」頓教思想,認為一旦領悟真如自性,便可
當即覺悟解脫,「悟心成祖」,「一念成佛」. 然而延壽還著
眼於現實性,認為達到解脫還應當修持六度萬行,經歷深
淺階位. 這是以往禪宗沒提到的.

Summary
Yanshou (904~975) was born into a family of Wang in
Qiantang. He inherited the dharma lineage of Tiantai
Deshao (890~971),the disciple of Wenyi who was the
founder of Fayan Sect. Yanshou first spread dharma at
Xuedou Shan,Ming Zhou and gradually became well-known.
In 960,Qian Hongchu,the king of Wuyue State,appointed
Yanshou to take the first abbacy of the newly-built
monastery at Lingyin Shan,Hang zhou. Next year,the
king also appointed him as the second abbot of the
great monastery at Yongming Qiantang. His disciples
once exceeded 2,000. He has written many books including
the 100-fascicled Zong Jing Lu,the 3-fascicled Wan Shan
Tong Gui Ji,the one-fascicled Wei Xin Jue,the 4-fascicled
Zhu Xin Fu,and the one-fascicled Guan Xin Xuan Shu.

In these books, on one hand he described systematically
the essence of Ch'an Sect,i.e. "to transmit mind with
mind and not to attach to words, " "to point directly
at man's mind and to see the mind-nature to become
Buddha"; on the other hand,he took reference from
other Buddhist sects to discuss the mind-nature
theory and practice techniques in details. He
suggested to integrate the two in order to link
Ch'an and teachings as well as to practise principle
and phenomenon at the same time.

The theory of Yanshou's Ch'an techniques claims "to
regard mind as the principal," i.e. to consider mind
as "the superior," "the substance," and "the wisdom."
In other words, he exalted the Buddha-nature theory
of Mahayana Buddhism as the standard to observe and
explain everything of the world,the human society,
the defilements, the birth-death and liberation
problems of sentient beings; he took the mind-nature
theory of Ch'an Sect as the center to comment the
teachings of Mahayana and Hinayana Buddhism and
the doctrine of different schools.

According to Yanshou,among the Buddhist sects
established in Sui and Tang Dynasties, only the
doctrine of Huayan School accords most with Ch'an
Sect. Through the reference to Huayan School's
theories of suchness (the tathagata mind,the dharma
nature),dependent origination of dharma realm,
perfect integration of noumena and phenomena, and
"the inter-penetration of the true and the delusive,"
he described that the Buddha nature is the reality of
the world; that it is inter-being and inter-penetration
between mental defilements and enlightenment,the
other shore of liberation and the this shore of
mundane,the sentient beings and the Buddha, etc.
He also provided the theoretical basis for his
"mutual practice of noumena and phenomena, " and
"integration of Ch'an and doctrine" through this
kind of inference. Since the noumena and phenomena
are perfectly integrated,the self realization of
mind-nature and the practice of various teachings
should go hand in hand with no obstruction; the
Ch'an Sect whose objectives are "to transmit the mind"
and "to see
Table of contents一. 延壽及其著作
二. 延壽的心性論
(一)「舉一心為宗,照萬法如鑒」
(二)真心與妄心,真妄交徹,即眾生是佛
(三)心與理,事
(四)明心見性,「一念成佛」
ISSN10177132 (P)
Hits1401
Created date2000.07.22
Modified date2017.06.20



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