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禪定課程與通識教育 -- 以教材與教學之研究為主=Meditation Courses and General Education: On Teaching Materials and Instruction Research
Author 釋惠敏 (著)=Shih, Hui-min (au.)
Date1994.10
Pages190
Publisher行政院國家科學委員會
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type其他=Others
Language中文=Chinese
Note執行機構:國立藝術學院共同科,計畫編號:NSC83-0111-S119-002-G,研究期間:82年08月 ~ 83年07月
Keyword禪定課程=Meditation Course; 通識教育=General Education; 教材=Teaching Material; 教學=Instruction
Abstract(1)《瑜伽論》之<聲聞地>依「有分別」,「無分別」二種禪定心態之故,以「觀」,「止」二種基本模式收攝禪定課程。並且以「所緣」將一般性的認識經驗與特殊性禪定經驗統一。所以,<聲聞地>可提供普遍性禪定課程(遍滿所緣)的資料。
(2)禪定課程可以「禪定對象」(所緣)為分類基準而分級,但其核心課程是不淨,慈愍,阿那波那念等三種。
(3)禪定課程的學習者首先應建立道德意識,日常生活中隨時隨地保持正念,正知,遠離不良朋友與書籍,親近善友與閱覽有益讀物,並且確認何者是亂心的外來與內在因素。此與通識教育之「使學生能建立倫理道德觀念與養成正確的生活態度」的目標有關。
4)指導者依據學習者的性向選擇適當的禪定修習對象(所緣,alambana)。一般是以觀察自己呼吸之出入,或憶念某一可克制自我,提昇自我的意象為禪定對象。亦可分為「有分別影像」與「無分別影像」等兩種類的基本形。後者適合於「心之安止」,前者則適合於「智慧之觀察」。此有助學生認識自己(身心)以完成「自我了解」的通識教育目標之一。
(5)獲得身心輕安與注意力集中(心一境性)是相互增進而達成身心「轉換」的目標。其課程是:初步是「專心」,其次是「清心」,最後是「明心」。此可以作為研究成人教育中自我發展過程的參考。
(6)西方對禪定的研究始於1920年代,而在1960年代蔚為風潮。由性質來看,1960年以前的作品,以通論性較多,1960年代以後,則較多樣化,而專論性作品越來越多。特別是受到鈴木大拙,佛洛姆,馬斯洛等人的影響,甚至成「超個人心理學」派產生之因之一。形成心理學的「第四勢力」。
(7)美國的「禪定與教育」,對禪定的認識過於簡化,大部分實驗中僅以由文獻中所找到的禪定方法製成錄音帶,來指導受試者禪修,對各種不同禪定系統之整體,其了解並不深入; 同時也忽略指導者與學習者之互動,這也許是為何TM在實驗中效果最大之因,因TM在美國已培養了許多師資。

The Cravakabhhmi Chapter of the Yogacarabhumi establishes contemplating and calming as the basic models for concentrating in meditation instruction, arising from the distinction between the meditative image, which is "attended with reflection" or "devoid of reflection". General cognitive experience and extraordinary Meditation experience is unified by "alambana". In this way, Cravakabhumi provides the material for general courses in meditation by the idea of "the universal meditative object".
Three levels of meditation courses may be established according to the meditative object, but the core material is, nevertheless, the revolting object,objects of friendliness, and objects of mindfulness on breathing.
Students of meditation should first establish a moral consciousness, maintaining at all times and in all places in their everyday lives correct thoughts, correct knowledge. Staying away from bad friends and reading material, and keeping close to worthy friends and good reading material. They should learn which Disturbances to their serenity are external in source, and which are internal. This is closely related to the goal of general education to help the students establish moral concepts and correct living habits. The instructor should select a meditation object (alambana) appropriate for each student's natural tendencies. This object is Generally chosen by observing the student's breathing, or by finding an object: hat the student mar think about to curb and sublimate his ego. Two basic types may be distinguished, the image attended with Reflection and devoid of reflection. The latter is appropriate for" calming the mind", the former for "contemplating wisdom". These help the student recognize his own body and mind, and reach the goal. Of general education to "Know thyself". By the mutual interaction between the bodily and mental tranquility and concentration, one can accomplish the transmutation of bodily and mental basis. The Course begins with concentration, continues by clarifying the mind, and concludes with enlightening the mind. This provides and excellent reference for designing courses in adult education.
Research in meditation began in the West in 1920's, and became popular in the 1960's. Most research done before the 1960's was general in nature. After the 1960's, work diversified, and specialized works increased in number. This trend has been influenced especially by Suzuki, from, and Maslow, and has even lento the establishment of Transpersonal psychology, or so-called" fourth psychology". In the United States, research in meditation and education has been marred by shallow knowledge of meditation. Most of their research consists of recording the meditative methods found in books, and playing the tapes to direct the participants in meditation. Most researchers lack deep knowledge of the entirety of Different meditative systems. They also neglect the interaction between instructor and student. This may explain why TM is the most effective in experiments, because TM has already developed many Teachers in the United States.
Hits383
Created date2000.12.07
Modified date2020.11.24



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