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有關受具前階規制之種種 : 沙彌(尼), 式叉摩那與「異學四月共住」規制之研究=On the Regulations Pertaining to the Period before Full Ordination:A Study on the Regulations Regarding Novices, Female Trainees, and Practitioners of Other Creeds Who Have to Li
Author 釋昭慧 (著)=Shih, Chao-hui (au.)
Source 法光學壇=Dharma Light Lyceum
Pages19 - 39
Publisher法光佛教文化研究所=Fa-kuang Institute of Buddhist Studies
Publisher Url
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword沙彌; 沙彌尼; 戒律=Precepts=Vianya=Sila
Abstract出家妊娠的尷尬案例,是促使佛制「學法女」制度的重大理由. 出家有孕,易罹世譏嫌,故若式叉摩那是出家尼,則「驗孕」之說不通; 「二歲」之驗孕期,應以持在家身為宜. 至於幼年出家的沙彌尼,比式叉摩那奉持更嚴格的十戒,沒理由倒退過來學習六法,以今驗孕醫術之便利,隨時可知已孕與否,故不需為此理由而延擱兩年.

十八歲以上童女 (或十歲以上的小年曾嫁女子),須先以「學法女」的身份,帶髮修行約略兩年,以考察她是否有孕. 既然形同俗人,所以也不像沙彌尼一樣嚴格規定「不持金銀」,但既然住在僧伽藍中,也就要在優婆夷五戒的基礎上,進一步與眾僧一樣過「不非時食」的生活 (這才是「六法」的本意).

其實男眾也不例外:二十歲以下的髫齡出家者,名之為「沙彌」,二十歲以上,欲出家受具,即可進行之,唯一例外是「外道 (異學) 四月共住」. 在這過渡的共住期間,種種待遇則比照沙彌,甚至是「在沙彌下」.

此規定之開緣有二:事火外道 (或加結髮外道) 因信有因果業報,比較容易轉化邪見,接受正法,所以得以直接出家受沙彌戒. 共住期間,若證得初果以上,不必等四月期限,即可以立刻出家.

The embarrassing case of the nun who became pregnant was the mainreason for the Buddha to introduce the system of "dharma studying female". As pregnancy in the case of nuns easily attracts ridicule from the general public it doesn't make sense to call this a "pregnancy test" if the female trainees were nuns. It is more reasonable to regard the "two year period" of testing pregnancy as applicable to laywomen. As far as those female novices are concerned who left home life at a tender age and have been keeping the ten precepts which are stricter than the precepts for female trainees, it does not make sense to retrogress and practice the "six dharmas". Since pregnancy tests nowadays are very convenient and any time applicable,there is no need for this two years delay any logner.

A virgin of more than 18 years of age (or a girl older than ten which had been married) has first to become a "dharma studying female" and practice as a layperson for about two years in order to find out whether she is pregnant or not. Since her outward appearance is that of a layperson,she is -- unlike a novice -- not subjected to the strict vow of "not accepting valuables." However,as she is living in a nunnery,she has to lead the life of "not eating after noon" like the monastic community in addition to keeping the five precepts of a layperson. (This is the real meaning behind the "six dharmas".)

As a matter of fact ,the same holds true for male disciples:those who left the homelife before the age of twenty are called "male novices"; those over 20 who want to become ordained cand do so with the exception of practitioners of other creeds who have to live together for four months first. In this transition period of communal living,the general treatment they receive equals that of novices or is even less.

There are two possible exceptions for this regulation. Practitioners of other creeds who venerate the fire (or those with matted hair) are allowed to receive direct ordination as novices since they believe in karmic retribution and it thus is easier for them to get rid of perverted views; for those who achieved one of the stages of holiness during the period of living together there is no need to wait until the period of four months is completed. They are allowed to enter the homeleft life immediately.
Table of contents一. 前言
二. 論式叉摩那係在家學法女
三. 異學四月共住制度
四. 四月共住之例外情形與個案
五. 結論
Created date2001.07.04; 2002.07.10
Modified date2017.08.23

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