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宗教倫理學的基本原理與中層原則 : 以基督宗教與佛教為主軸的一個探索=The Basic Principle of the Mid-Level Rules of Religious Ethics : An Exploration Centering around Christianity and Buddhism
Author 釋昭慧 (著)=Shih, Chao-hui (au.)
Source 法光學壇=Dharma Light Lyceum
Volumen.6
Date2002
Pages1 - 36
Publisher法光佛教文化研究所=Fa-kuang Institute of Buddhist Studies
Publisher Url http://fakuang.org.tw/
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者為玄奘人文社會學院宗教學研究所副教授
Keyword原則主義; 倫理學; 道德; 動物倫理; 宗教; 中層原則; principle; ethics; Christianity
Abstract研究法律,必須理解立法精神與立法原理,次而明瞭其基本規範──憲法,再而理解依憲法所制訂的實體法與程序法,乃至更次層級的種種行政法規與種種判例。而政府部門、人民團體、企業團體或宗教團體,也必須援引這些上層法規以為依據,進而制訂內部法規。世間法律是如此有層級性地逐漸形成,宗教戒規亦然。各種宗教哲學與思想體系,其倫理學說都可從基本原理,產生若干中層原則,從中層原則產生基本規範,從基本規範產生各種不同層級的法規制度,又在沿用各種規制以斷案之時,產生各種可供後來者依循的判例。本文依「原則主義」(Principlism)中所論證的四個最基本的中層原則,用以檢視基督宗教與佛教倫理學,從兩大宗教迥異的基本原理(「神造論」 與 「緣起論」),推論其如何得出中層原則之共識,並向下略述它們形成各自基本規範的內在理路,以及它們各自所面對的質疑,與它們針對質疑所做的回應。如:基督宗教的「一生一切」論,佛教玄學化的 「一即一切」 論與單線因果思考的 「業障」 論,都易受到 「陷入命定論」 之質疑,基督宗教則易受到 「排他性」 與 「如何建立信心」 之質疑。 本文特別一提兩大宗教的動物倫理,因為,「動物」應否被納入道德考
量?這是兩大宗教在運用「不傷害」、「仁愛」或「公正」原則時,歧義最大的一個部分。

In the study of law, it is necessary to understand the spirit behind the establishment of laws and the principle according to which laws are given.
The next point to realize is its basic standard ( i.e the constitution), and then the material and formal laws, or even more detailed administrative regulations and all kinds of concrete cases, based on the foundation of the constitution. Government agencies, civil organizations, business conglomerates and religious bodies have to consult these high-level stipulations when they settle on their own constitutions.
Worldly law developed in this way step by step. The same is the case with religious law. Ethics in the philosophies and ideological systems of each religion can produce a number of mind-level rules from their basic principle and then, from mid-level rules, develop basic standards and from basic standards all kids of different law systems. When they decide individual cases by extension from various law systems, they produce decisions which later generations can consult.
The present paper uses the four most basic mid-level rules principlism is talking about, in order to check ethics in Christianity and Buddhism. From the vastly different basic principles of these great religions—“creation” and “dependent arising”—it is deduced how they arrive at common ground regarding mid-level rules. Furthermore, the inner logic of the formation of their basic standards is described as well as the doubts they have to face and the way they respond to those. To give an example, the Christian teaching of “one created everything,” the concept of “one is everything” found in mystified Buddhism, and the “karmic obstacle” concept reflecting simple cause-effect consideration are all easily criticized to fall into the trap of fatalism. Christianity is also prone to be accused of intolerance. The present paper discusses especially ethics regarding animals as presented by these two religions since their greatest difference exists when they argue about extending the principles of “not harming,” “love,” and “justice” to animals.
Hits1047
Created date2003.07.25
Modified date2017.08.24



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