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虛雲和尚長時住定經驗之探索=An Inquiry into Master Xuyun's Experience of Staying in Meditative Absorption for Extended Periods of Time
Author 釋惠敏 (著)=Huimin, Bhikkhu (au.)
Source 中華佛學學報=Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal=The Journal of Chinese Buddhist Studies
Volumen.16
Date2003.09
Pages147 - 167
Publisher中華佛學研究所=The Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
Publisher Url http://chinesebuddhiststudies.org/
Location新北市, 臺灣 [New Taipei City, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese; 英文=English
Note作者為國立台北藝術大學教授=Professor, Taipei National University of the Arts
Keyword虛雲=Master Xuyun; 禪定=samadhi; 四食=the four kinds of nutriment; 彌勒=Maitreya; 識智=consciousness and wisdom
Abstract根據《虛雲和尚年譜》,虛雲和尚一生中有三次長時(半月.九日.九日)[住定]時間記錄,如此長時間住定的能力,從佛教的觀點如何理解?與禪定學相關的議題為何?佛典中是否有類似的實例?等等問題是本論文想探索的重點,其內容綱要如下:
一. 佛典中對禪定的能力,基本上可從入定.住定.出定等三個階段來分析,也有將此三種自在能力與[轉向自在]. [觀察自在]合稱為禪定進展之[五種自在]說.
二. 虛雲和尚回答:1901年底(六十二歲)至1902年初(六十三歲)在終南山入定十八天不是有心入定; 因若是有心則不能入定; 也不是無心入定,因不是如泥木偶像等無情物(非有心亦非無心而入定),而是[制心一處,無所不辦].並以唐代僧黃檗希運禪師(?~849)的[看話頭]禪法,答覆如何入定的問題.
三.《大毘婆沙論》(卷153)認為:欲界眾生的身體成分(諸根大種)需由飲食(段食)養分來維持. 若長久住在禪定中,雖人在定中時,身體無損,但出定後身體便散壞. 所以,住滅盡定者,由於沒飲食養分之維持,最長不得過七晝夜,並且舉兩個長時(三個月.半月.或一月)住滅盡定的實例來說明.
四.《成唯識論了義燈》討論長時安住於[滅盡定]時,是以識.觸.思等三種精神性的食物來維持生命. 但《大毘婆沙論》與《成實論》則認為安住於[滅盡定]者,段.識.觸.思等四種食物皆無.
五.虛雲和尚1951年(一百十二歲)雲門事變,跌坐入定九日,說及[夢至兜率內院,見彌勒菩薩說法]的經驗. 此在罽賓或印度地區於西元四.五世紀時,修行者入禪定,上升兜率問彌勒菩薩佛法的記載不少.
六. 禪定夢中彌勒菩薩所開示的[識智波水偈],是討論[妄識與智慧]的關係猶如[波水]之體性不異,其內容可能與《宗鏡錄》,《八識規矩頌》,《圓覺經》等佛典有關. 末二句則表達雖在劫業苦難中,悲願渡生不退轉的勉勵. 如此,禪定不只是修行者內心世界的安立,所謂[逃讓]之譏,進一步發揮出來,也作為建設人間淨土的精神力量的支柱.

According to The Chronicle of Master Xuyun,the Master had three experiences of long-dwelling in samadhi in his life—one instance lasting a half-month, and two lasting nine days each. How are we to comprehend the capability for long-dwelling in samadhi from a Buddhist perspective? What are the relevant issues in the study of samadhi and meditation? Are there similar cases to be found in the Buddhist canon? This article investigates the above questions, and is summarized below.
1. In Buddhist literature,samadhi can be analyzed in three stages:entering into,dwelling in,and emerging from samadhi. Additionally,there is theory of the "five kinds of mastery" in developing samadhi,which consists of the above three (entering,dwelling,and emerging),with the addition of the masteries of turning and observing.
2. Master Xuyun replied that the eighteen day-long samadhi experience on Mt. Zhongnan at the age of 62 (Dec. 1901~ Jan. 1902) was not intentional,for if there is an intention,then one cannot enter samadhi. Neither,however,does one enter samadhi unintentionally,as one is not insentient like a stone or a statue. (I.e.,samadhi is entered neither through intention nor without intention.) Thus one should say "concentrate the mind,and nothing is impossible." He also used the Chan practice of "observing the source of the language" (by Master Huangbo Xiyun,Tang dynasty) to answer the question of how one enters samadhi.
3. According to the Abhidharma-mahavibhasa-sastra (fasc.153),beings in the desire realm require the nourishment of food and drink (called “ sequential physical food ”) to sustain the existence of the bodily elements. If one dwells in samadhi for an extended period of time,although the body will remain intact during samadhi,its elements would disperse after exiting samadhi. Thus, one could dwell in the “concentration of cession ” for no longer than seven days and nights due to the lack of alimentary nutrition to sustain the body. The text also uses two real cases of dwelling in the concentration of cession (one for three months, the other for a month or half a month) as examples for illustration.
4. The Cheng weishi lun liaoyideng discuss long-dwelling in the concentration cession,in which life is sustained by three kinds of spiritual nutriment:consciousness, sensory contact,and volition. But the Abhidharma-mahavibhasa-sastra and the Tattva-siddhi- sastra presume the absence of all four kinds of nutriment (sequential physical food,consciousness, sensory contact,and volition) during the concentration of cessation.
5. During the Yunmen incident in 1951,at the age of 112,Master Xuyun meditated and dwelled in samadhi for nine days. Afterwards he mentioned the experience of “dreaming that I visited tusita heaven,and saw Maitators, who gave a discourse. ” There are numerous records of meditators in Kasmara and India in the fourth and fifith centuries having similar experiences of visiting tusita heaven for Maitreya’s discourses.
6. During Master Xuyun’s samadhi,the poem “Consciousness and wisdom,waves and water ” given by Maitreya states that the relationship of consciousn
Table of contents一、前言 149
(一)住定時間能有多長?入定的方法與體驗為何?
(二)入定、住定、出定
二、六十二歲煮芋,跏趺待熟,不覺定去半月 151
(一)制心一處,無事不辦
(二)看話頭入定
三、六十八歲講《普門品》,定去九日,哄動暹京 156
(一)住滅盡定得經幾時?
(二)滅盡定以何為食?
四、一百十二歲雲門事變,趺坐入定九日 159
(一)入定,生兜率天,見彌勒說法
(二)識智波水偈


ISSN10177132 (P)
Hits1402
Created date2003.09.08
Modified date2017.06.20



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