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洪州系的農禪學和農業烏托邦
Author 杜繼文
Source 佛學研究=Research of Buddhism
Volumen.11
Date2002
Publisher中國佛教文化研究所
Location北京, 中國 [Beijing, China]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note出處:中國期刊網-文史哲輯專欄目錄
Keyword禪宗; 懷海; 農禪; 烏托邦
Abstract農禪不是一人一時創造出來的,它的出現有一個時代的大背景,即戰亂和饑鋨導致北中國農民大逃亡,形成了流動人口的「流民」,繼而再變為遊僧,從而徹底改變了佛教傳統,使禪門思維方式起到根本的變化。崇尚自然,尊重自性(天性),獨立特行,任性逍遙,不接受任何人為的束縛和名教的琢磨,則是洪州宗系農禪派大師們的創造。百丈的新貢獻是態度堅定地將禪宗推向生產勞動領域,使農禪得到了理論和實踐的雙重肯定,一時間農禪勢力大興,叢林風行。在中國佛教史上,包括整部禪宗史,如此自覺,如此明確地把「獨立」、「自由」納入修行實踐的目標,也應該首推懷海。聽任自然,是懷海自由觀的基石。他關于自由的理論,就抽象性言,沒有離開佛教哲學基礎,而且主要是般若學的,到了《古尊宿語錄》,指導思想已經歸結到被改造了的法相唯識學上了。古代中國農業社會主義烏托邦理想,唯一實現了的,就是懷海山居創立的農禪社會。我們也可視為這是佛教社會主義的一種形態,有典型的意義。
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Created date2005.03.11
Modified date2018.04.27



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