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有關「惡」之形上論述的比較 -- 西方哲學、神學與佛教哲學論「惡」之問題=A Comparison in Metaphysics on the Problem of Evil : arguments Between Western Philosophy, Theology and Buddhism Philosophy
Author 釋性廣 (著)=Shih, Shing-kuang (au.)
Source 玄奘佛學研究=Hsuan Chuang Journal of Buddhism
Pages237 - 265
Publisher Url
Location新竹市, 臺灣 [Hsinchu shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Note作者為玄奘大學暨東吳大學兼任講師=Sessional Instructor of Hsuan Chuang University & Soochow University
Keyword形上惡=Metaphysical evil; 道德惡=Moral evil; 生理惡=Physical evil; 自然惡=Natural Evil; 惡的問題=Problem of evil kleca; 煩惱; 惡業=Akucala-karma; 有覆無記=Nivrtavyakrta; 無覆無記=Snivrtavyakrta; 如來藏=Tathagata-garbha

In this article, I compare different opinions and controversies between Eastern
and Western religions and their philosophies on both the essence and the origin of evil.
In western philosophy and theology, evil is regarded as being related to the
concept privation. They declare that its existence (either something or somebody) is privative when not perfect. Accordingly, it divides evil into four groups: metaphysical evil, moral evil, physical evil and natural evil.
On the other hand, Chinese philosophers are more concerned with ethical evil.
Since they explore the origin of evil directly from humanity, they pay much attention to a practical method about how to propagate good and discard evil. In Western theology and philosophy, the search to find the origin of evil implies that there exists metaphysical evil. Meanwhile, with faith in God, many arguments arise regarding the problem of evil.
In Buddhist philosophy, whenever speaking of evil, they also give emphasis to
ethical evil. Both kleca and akucala-karma are evil. Besides good and evil, they establish avyāk?ta, which is neither good nor evil. Good deeds lead to happiness; evil deeds lead to torture. The causes (mental and physical deeds) are divided into three groups: good, evil and avyāk?ta. Yet, the effect belongs to avyāk?ta only.
Moreover, western philosophers regard bad effects arising from moral evil as evil (physical evil and natural evil), but Buddhists regard them as avyāk?ta, not evil, but torture. If we want to get away from torture, we have to discard evil deeds. In this sense, evil and torture are still closely related.
Buddhists emphasize the Experience Principle. They observe evil deeds during
practical life, and then discard them. Accordingly, they have no imagination or
arguments about metaphysical evil (the origin of evil). But the Tathagata-garbha School is unique. It is convinced that there exists an original inner pure essence (the metaphysical good), so it regards the origin of evil as the unenlightenment, with no primal ignorance, and as the foreign atom kleca.
Table of contents一、緒論 240
二、西方神學與哲學對「惡」的討論 245
(二)對「惡的問題」(the problem of evil)的詰難
三、佛教哲學對「惡」的討論 257
四、結論 262
ISSN18133649 (P); 18133649 (E)
Created date2010.09.10
Modified date2017.12.01

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