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慧思「法華三昧」之「大乘頓覺法門」研究=A Study on “the Approach to Mahayana Sudden Enlightenment” in Hwei-si's “Saddharma-pundarika-samadhi”
Author 釋性廣 (著)=Shih, Shing-kuang (au.)
Source 玄奘佛學研究=Hsuan Chuang Journal of Buddhism
Volumen.16
Date2011.09.01
Pages23 - 56
Publisher玄奘大學宗教學研究所
Publisher Url http://ird.hcu.edu.tw/front/bin/home.phtml
Location新竹市, 臺灣 [Hsinchu shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese; 英文=English
Note作者為東吳大學哲學系兼任助理教授=Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy, Soochow University
Keyword法華三昧=saddharma-pundarīka-samādhi; 有相行=attainable practices; 無相行=unattainable (formless) practices; 次第行=path in sequence; 不次第行=path without sequence; 大乘頓覺法門=approach to Mahayana sudden enlightenment; 無量三昧=infinite samādhi
Abstract慧思禪師曾舉揚「法華三昧」為「大乘頓覺」之殊勝法門,然學界鮮少從止觀實修的角度討論。故本文剖析其中特色,以探究此一號稱玄妙高深的「大乘頓覺法門」之意涵。本文從四個面向進行分析,即:一、慧思個人的實修經歷,二、經典文獻的依據,三、慧思「法華三昧」的修行要件,四、檢視從修行理論到實修成果的具體內容。慧思所說之「法華三昧」的特色,本文歸納為五點:一、此乃大乘利根者所修之不次第法門,非頓根菩薩與聲聞行人所能企及。二、這是在大乘信願法的「有相行」的基礎上,以大乘智覺為導的「無相行」行法;慧思名之為「法華安樂行」,並發揮菩薩忍辱波羅蜜的深義。三、若能成就甚深禪定力道,以入於「法華三昧」,則能旁通聲聞諸禪定境界。四、以「法華三昧」之一三昧,能入於無量三昧。五、以「六根清淨」為「法華三昧」修行之證量。「法華三昧」做為「一切世間難信」的「大乘頓覺」法門,慧思禪師以他的甚深禪悟境界,嚴謹對照傳統大小乘的修行系統知識,使「法華三昧」成為深具特色而又能溝通二乘禪境義解的大乘三昧法門,為後來智顗大師建構天台圓教止觀,做了重要的學理與實修的奠基工作。

Chan Master Hwei-si once praised “saddharma-pundarīka-samādhi” as a unique approach to “sudden enlightenment in the Mahayana practice”; however, academic studies of this topic rarely discuss it from an empirical perspective based on actual śamatha and vipaśyanā meditation practices. Therefore, this paper shall analyze its distinguishing features so as to explicate the significance of this “approach to sudden enlightenment in the Mahayana practice” that has been well-acclaimed as supremely mystical and profoundly exalting. This paper analyzes the topic from four perspectives: Hwei-si’s personal experiences in meditation practice, scriptural and textual evidences, the requirements to practice Hwei-si’s “saddharma-pundarīka-samādhi,” and a thorough investigation of the concrete achievements attained through the practice, from theories to actual practices. The distinguishing features of Hwei-si’s “saddharma-pundarīkasamādhi” can be concluded with the following five points. First of all, this is a non-sequential approach and practice for highly advanced Mahayana practitioners who are sharp enough and ready for the practice, so it is not for those unequipped bodhisattvas or śrāvaka practitioners (arahats/hearers). Secondly, it is based on “the attainable practices” of Mahayana approach through faith and vows, which is then furthered as “un-attainable (formless)practices” and guided by Mahayana wisdom of enlightenment. Hwei-si names it “the way to bliss in lotus samādhi,” and he further discloses its profound implications in relation to the bodhisattvas' ksānti-pāramitā (forbearance pāramitā). Thirdly, if one can attain extremely profound power of dhyāna samādhi (immensely deep meditative state) so as to enter into “saddharma-pundarīka-samādhi,” the person can also enter into all other kinds of dhyāna samādhi states attained by the śrāvaka practitioners (arahats). Fourth, with one samādhi attained through “saddharma-pundarīka-samādhi,” a practitioner can attain infinite samādhi. Fifth, the practice and achievement of “saddharma-pundarīka-samādhi” can be verified by checking whether the practitioner has attained the state where “the Six Sense Organs are cleansed and purified” (i.e. purified and freed from any attachment to the vexations generated through the Six Sense Organs).“Saddharma-pundarīka-samādhi” is treated as an “unbelievable approach to Mahayana sudden enlightenment among all worlds.” With his profound enlightened meditative achievements, Chan Master Hwei-si carefully compared and contrasted the various practice systems and knowledge between the Hinayana and Mahayana traditions, and then turned “saddharma-pundarīka-samādhi” into a unique approach to attain Mahayana samādhi, an approach which not only contains distinguishing features but also bridges our comprehension and interpretation of the meditative progresses and states between the two traditions. In terms of theoretical
discourses and actual practices, he had laid a significant foundation for the future work to construct the Perfect-teachings on śamatha and vipaśyanā meditation practices of Tian-tai School, a task to be completed by Master Zhiyi.
Table of contents一、前言 27
二、慧思禪師之修行歷程與成就 28
(一)得色無色定,調心治禪病
(二)證法華三昧,通聲聞禪境
(三)謁名德印證,傳三乘禪法
(四)信力根清淨,證入鐵輪位
三、大乘三昧法門之特德 36
(一)道品心要:定慧二行以利生為主
(二)法門數量:眾生無邊故法門無量
(三)修證判準:世智通達為三昧成就
四、慧思「法華三昧」思想──以《法華安樂行義》為主 41
(一)「法華三昧」原初內容
(二)慧思「法華三昧」思想
五、結論 51
(一)慧思以修道成就,印證己身言教
(二)慧思所說「大乘頓覺」法門修行要件與成就證量
(三)總結
ISSN18133649 (P); 18133649 (E)
Hits298
Created date2013.07.24
Modified date2017.12.08



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