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藥地愚者禪學思想蠡探:從「眾藝五明」到「俱鎔一味」=Exploring the Chan Thinking of Yaodi Yuzhe: From “The Five Lights of the Arts” to “Complete Fusion in a Single Taste”
Author 廖肇亨 (著)=Liao, Chao-heng (au.)
Source 中國文哲研究集刊=Bulletin of the Institute of Chinese Literature and Philosophy
Volumen.33
Date2008.09.01
Pages173 - 203
Publisher中央研究院中國文哲研究所
Publisher Url http://www.litphil.sinica.edu.tw/
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note中央研究院中國文哲研究所副研究員。
Keyword方以智=Fang Yizhi; 《華嚴》=Huayan; 《東西均》=Dong Xi Jun ; 明代佛教=Ming Buddhism
Abstract 方以智 (1611-1671),出家後號藥地愚者,嗣法曹洞宗覺浪道盛 (1592-1659)。其學浩瀚淵博,網羅萬有,熔鑄多端,自成一格,拒斥將思想實體化。所有的知識來源對於方以智而言,都是值得學習、效法,乃至於運用的藥材,在獨到的智慧調和之下,綻放出新的輝光與效能。因此對方以智而言,不論儒者、高僧、科學家、考證學者、理學家都不足以盡其底蘊。
方以智的思想發展雖因生命歷程而各自有不同階段的特色,但其禪學思想仍有相當程度的一致性。方以智將禪學定位為佛學流亞,然而當時以密雲圓悟為首的臨濟宗門卻以不學為高,視經典文字如寇讎,藥地以為欲轉此流弊,必須重視經典的研修,於是《華嚴》之學遂成為最好的指南。《華嚴》是方以智溝通禪、教的絕佳橋樑,同時也是其支持禪林外學的理論基礎之一,並由此向文字禪靠近。在方以智來看,禪並沒有實體的內涵,只是一種引發機緣與熔鑄才學的觸媒。其具體內涵幾乎全為《華嚴》所涵攝,這也說明了《華嚴》教學在當時佛教界與思想界的重要性。
本文將方以智思想中華嚴禪的源流加以辨析,並隨時與當時叢林論學風尚相參照,考察其與方以智靈明圓融思想之間的交融互攝,嘗試說明方以智的思想版圖中除了其師覺浪道盛以外,也與當時叢林宗匠,若憨山德清、雪浪洪恩、紫柏真可、密雲圓悟等人的思想與學說主張展開積極對話的姿態。一則辨析藥地之學術源流,一則見其「代明錯行」之思想實踐,同時也為藥地思想在禪學史上尋求一適當的定位。

Fang Yizhi (1611-1671, named Yaodi Yuzhe after his renunciation of mundane life), was a disciple of Chan Master Juelang Daosheng (1592-1659). Fang had a vast range of learning, and he contributed his own keen insights into many fields. He did not reify thought, and held that every source of knowledge should be a therapeutic method for study, emulation and practice; with composition and arrangement through his unique wisdom, new inspirations and effects could be produced. For this reason, labels such as “Confucian,” “Buddhist,”  “monk,”  “scientist,”  “textual scholar,”  or “Neo-Confucian” are insufficient to convey the depths of his scholarship.
Although Fang’s thoughts underwent different phases of development through the stages of his life, his thought about Chan was rather consistent. Departing from the Linji school, headed by Master Miyun Yuanwu, which considered the unlearned as superior to the learned and treated classics and doctrines as enemies, Fang held that since Chan study is derived from Buddhist study, study on classics is to be emphasized. To change the prevailing views, he chose Huayan teachings as the most appropriate approach.  For Yaodi,  the  philosophy  of  Huayan  was  the  best  connection  between Chan and doctrinal approaches, and was also a theoretical base for him to support non-Buddhist studies, and bring them closer to a Chan that uses words. In his view, Chan is without substantial content; it is nothing but a medium to trigger and synthesize a learner’s talents and knowledge. The specific substance of Chan is almost completely  contained by Huayan study, which indicates the significance of the study of Huayan to Buddhism and the field of philosophy at that time.
This essay argues that Fang Yizhi’s Avatamsaka Zen (Huayan Chan) philosophy  is not solely derived from his Master Juelang Daosheng, but rather nourished by the prevalent forest monastic traditions through active dialogue with its Masters such as Hanshan Deqing, Xuelang Hongen, Zibo Zhenke, Miyun Yuanwu, etc. Through  an analysis of the sources of Fang’s philosophy, this essay seeks to find a suitable place for him in the history of Zen Buddhism.
Table of contents一、前言 173
二、「別均與獨均爭」:藥地思想版圖中的禪學定位 177
三、「拈《華嚴》之華(花)」:藥地華嚴思想探析 180
四、「鼎炮洞上君臣藥,斧透曹山父子恩」:藥地論禪要義探析 188
五、「本末盡歸宗」:藥地文字禪觀試析 194
六、代結語:俱鎔一味之「中道法界」 197
ISSN10176462 (P)
Hits129
Created date2014.07.11
Modified date2019.08.07



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