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牟宗三〈文殊問疾〉章義的現代生死學新詮=The New Interpretive Significances of Mou Tzong-San's 'Mañjuśrī Inquires after the Disease' Chapter on Contemporary Life-and-Death Studies
Author 尤惠貞 (著)=You, Huei-Jean (au.) ; 陳彥伯 (著)=Chen, Yen-po (au.)
Source 生死學研究
Volumen.8
Date2008.07.01
Pages137 - 196
Publisher南華大學生死學系
Location嘉義, 臺灣 [Chia-i, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Keyword牟宗三=Mou Tzong-San; 五十自述=The Narration of Fifty; 文殊問疾=Mañjuśrī inquires after the disease; 傅偉勳=Charles W. H. Fu Fu Weixun; 生死學=Life and Death Studies
Abstract本文選擇牟宗三學思自傳《五十自述》內的〈文殊問疾〉,進行現代生死學的反省議題,是緣於一個思索:按國內生死學的發展,在傅偉勳提出結合東方心性論傳統以來,透過科際整合的對話交流,借用各科學門的長處,以提出不同角度的具體解決方案,實已奠定了重要的理論基礎。然而像傅氏能兼顧學問的生命與生命的學問,進而深化生死學成為理論的資糧者,在當前人文學科嚴重邊緣化的風氣下,似乎已有消逝殆盡的傾向。事實上,當我們審視近代學術史的發展,不難發現當前所謂學術論述的特質,是以工具化的研究目的與理性價值作為知識的判準。這種物化對立的傾向,正如近代哲學家提出精神科學以為對治方案時所批評的,雖有其專業性的特殊貢獻,但在全面取代人文世界的同時,卻也暴露出無法啟蒙思維的瓶頸。當初傅氏提出生死學建構的雛形時,就曾表明開創方向,是以中國哲學心性體認的辯證性作為批判地超克生死文化課題之動力。此與牟氏強調知識、思辨、感觸三者詳備而開實智,作為探究真理途徑以消解時代、民族、生命的魔難及虛耗,可說有其高度的相似性。傅氏生前嘗論,中國哲學生命智慧的未來契機,就是對於牟氏著作與方法的繼往開來。是以就生死學的探索而言,牟氏從西方文化的學問平台,進至融通東西方的生命學問進路,重要性自是不容忽視。特別在個體生死學意義上的探索,牟氏自專研西方學術歷程與自我存在困境轉折所記載的《五十自述》裡,蘊含著全面觀照生命的精彩論述;該書又以〈文殊問疾〉一章所揭櫫的存在感受,表現出兼具時代問題的省思以及生命困境的覺察之睿智,相信在此思考如何灌溉現代生死學成為精神沃土之際,能予我人豐富養分。是故本文嘗試藉此章義的理路,析論蘊含其中的自覺可能。

The authors examine the development of the Life and Death Studies in Taiwan promoted by Charles W. H. Fu (Fu Weixun) who combined traditional hsin/hsing theory and modern philosophy by interdisciplinary theoretical discussions and various methodological arguments among different scholars has already provided the important basic technique for this newly founded discipline. However because of the marginalization of humanities studies nowadays, we could hardly find the scholar like Fu Weixun who concern ”Life of Learning” and ”Studies of Life” at the same time. Modern philosophers advocate spiritual approach to replace the materialistic one. However the atmosphere of the contemporary academic research is still superficial and instrumental that could hardly generate original enlightened thought instead of so-called ”professional” researches. Fu Weixun advocated the hsin/hsing theory as a motor and dialectic method to transcend critically and creatively the cultural problem of life and death. According to Mou Tzong-San, knowledge, contemplation and sensual contacts are three basis of opening wisdom. The truth is base on the fulfillment of entire three bases and can also eradicate the problems of time, humans, life. Fu Weixun and Mou Tzong-San's idea is in a similar way at this very point. Fu Weixun had ever admired Mou Tzong-San's writing and method as the basis and future hope of Chinese Philosophy. We, therefore, re-evaluate the significances of Mou Tzong-San's theory for the Life and Death Studies in his ”The Narration of Fifty” through his efforts on integration of both Western and Eastern attitudes toward Life of Learning which is important enough and has been neglected for a long time. In the last chapter 'Mañjuśrī inquires after the disease,' Mou Tzong-San deals with the feeling of self existing, express the returns contemporary problems and awaking the limitations of life. We hope that, through re-evalute the Mou Tzong-San's idea on the Life and Death Studies could enrich this very discipline in the near future.
Table of contents壹、前言 141
一、生命的學問與現代生死學心性體認原則之關係 141
二、牟宗三的生命轉化歷程與生死超克精神之關涉 146
三、『文殊問疾』的佛教原意與牟宗三借喻新解之析辨 150
貳、〈文殊問疾〉所接顯的存在問題 155
一、『病至於死』的存在感受:病態生命的存在本質 155
二、『生命離其自己』的外在化偏向:生命的兩極化 160
三、時代的喪亡與個體生命之病疾:生命淪落之途 163
叁、 〈文殊問疾〉對於存在的省思與歸趣 166
一、對於佛陀的存在證悟之評賞 166
二、對於耶穌的慧根覺情之析論 172
三、終極貞定於孔子的生命指點 176
肆、〈文殊問疾〉對於存在問題的對治之道 180
一、內容真理的消極涵養工夫 180
二、存在體證的積極奮鬥歷程 184
三、自證悲情三昧的理想型態 186
伍、結語 190
一、感言 190
二、總結 191
三、展望 192
參考文獻 194
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Created date2015.12.04



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