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十二至十三世紀東亞禪宗與儒教:試論道元關於三教一致說批判的對象及其背景=East Asian Ch'an Buddhism and Confucianism in 12th and 13th Century: Examines Targets and Background of Dōgen's Criticism of the Theory of the Consistency among the Three Major Chinese Religions
Author 何燕生 (著)=He, Yan-sheng (au.)
Source 臺灣東亞文明研究學刊=Taiwan Journal of East Asian Studies
Volumev.11 n.1 (總號=n.21)
Pages135 - 163
Publisher臺灣大學人文社會高等研究院=Center for the Study of East Asian Civilizations, National Taiwan University
Publisher Url
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Keyword東亞禪宗=East Asian Ch'an Buddhism; 三教一致說批判=Criticism of the theory of the consistency among the three major Chinese religions; 道元禪學=Dōgen's Zen Buddhism; 《法華經》=Saddharma-pundarika-Sūtra; 《楞嚴經》=Surangamasamadhi (Lengyan Jing); 《圓覺經》=Yuanjue Sūtra; 六祖惠能=Six Patriarch Huineng
Abstract本文對道元關於三教一致說批判的對象和背景進行了考察。所謂三教一致說, 即主張儒、釋、道三教在根本上為一致,宋代(960-1279)盛行這種學說, 道元(1200-1253)斥其是「邪說」,認為宋朝三教一致說的流行,是佛法 衰微的標誌,勸告弟子不要輕聽其言。據道元說,主張三教一致說的人,貶 低《法華經》的教義,而推崇《楞嚴經》和《圓覺經》。道元依據六祖惠能 (638-713)推崇《法華經》、《涅槃經》和《金剛經》的說法,認為推崇 《楞嚴經》和《圓覺經》,不符合禪宗的傳統,而且指出《楞嚴經》和《圓覺經 》,古來曾有人斥之為偽經,非佛所說。經筆者對道元所有著述的考證, 道元開始批判三教一致說的年代為日本寬元元年(1243),在此之前並未見有 批判的言論。寬元元年,入宋歸國的日本臨濟宗的聖一(1202-1280)來到京都 ,主持東福寺;而且,達摩宗的門徒相繼皈依道元也正是這一年。他們都推崇 《楞嚴經》和《圓覺經》,並提倡三教一致說。他們的傳法世系,皆為宋代中國 的臨濟宗。鑒於這些事實,筆者認為,道元三教一致說批判的對象,其實就是宋 代中國的臨濟宗以及繼承其法系的日本臨濟宗和達摩宗;其批判的背景主要是由 於當時達摩宗和臨濟宗的存在;道元站在六祖惠能的經典觀來批判他們,旨在闡 明自己所傳之禪思想的正統性,強調自己遵循的是唐代惠能以來的正統佛法。

This paper examines the targets and background of Dōgen's criticism of the theory of the consistency among the three major Chinese religions. This theory argues that Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism were fundamentally in agreement with one another. Dōgen felt that the Song (960-1279) theory in vogue at that time was also heterodoxy, and felt that the popularity of the theory of the consistency among the three major religions was an indicator of the decline of Buddhism, and urged his disciples not to listen to it so uncritically. According to what Dōgen said, those who advocated the theory of consistency belittled the doctrine of the Saddharma-pundarika-Sūtra (法華經) and esteemed the Surangamasamadhi (首楞嚴經) and Yuanjue (圓覺經)Sūtra. Because it was said that the Six Patriarch Huineng (惠能, 638-713) esteemed the Saddharma-pundarlka, Mahaparnirvana (涅槃經) and Vajra (金剛經) Sūtra, Dōgen felt that it was inconsistent with Zen tradition to esteem the Surangamasamadhi and Yuanjue Sūtras, pointing out that from very early on there had been those who doubted the authenticity of the Surangamasamadhi and Yuanjue Sūtras, suggesting that they were not Buddhist. According to our research, Dōgen first started to criticize the theory of the consistency of the three religions in 1243. One cannot find any criticism from him before that date. In 1243 Shoichi (聖一, 1202-1280), a Japanese monk of the Linji (臨濟) Sect who had made a pilgrimage to China, arrived in Kyoto to be the abbot of Tofuku (東福) Temple. It was also precisely in this year that many disciples of the Daruma Sect came to Dōgen to be converted to his sect. All of these disciples esteemed the Surangamasamadhi and Yuanjue Sūtra, and advocated the consistency of the three religions. Their stream of teaching was completely of the Chinese Song Dynasty Linji Sect. Having verified these facts, we believe that the targets of Dōgen's criticism were in fact the Chinese Linji Sect and those who continued their stream of teaching in Japan, the Japanese followers of the Linji Sect, as well as the followers of the Daruma Sect. The reason for carrying out this criticism was because of the existence of the Daruma and Linji Sects in Japan. He wanted to criticize them from the viewpoint of sutras held by the Sixth Patriarch, and thus make crystal clear the orthodoxy of the Zen ideas he taught, and emphasize that what he adhered to was the orthodoxy that had been passed down from the Six Patriarch Huineng of the Tang Dynasty (618-907).
Table of contents壹、前言 138
貳、散見於道元著述中關於三教一致說批判的言說 139
參、三教一致說批判之對象與背景 147
肆、結語 158
ISSN18126243 (P)
Created date2016.05.20
Modified date2019.08.15

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