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平衡「見諍」的操作槓桿 -- 「言論自由」與「宗教容忍」的佛法觀點=A Balancing Mechanism for Dispute Resolution-Buddhist Reflections on Freedom of Speech and Religious Tolerance
Author 釋昭慧 (著)=Shih, Chao-hwei (au.)
Source 玄奘佛學研究=Hsuan Chuang Journal of Buddhism
Volumen.24
Date2015.09.01
Pages29 - 48
Publisher玄奘大學宗教學研究所
Publisher Url http://ird.hcu.edu.tw/front/bin/home.phtml
Location新竹市, 臺灣 [Hsinchu shih, Taiwan]
Series宗教容忍與言論自由專輯
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者單位: 玄奘大學宗教與文化學系教授、系主任兼社會科學院院長
Keyword欲諍=dispute over differences in desires; 見諍=Dispute over differences in beliefs; 言論自由=freedom of speech; 公然侮辱=affront; 誹謗=slander
Abstract眾生界的爭鬥,有「欲諍」與「見諍」兩種。宗教人士值遇不同的宗教信仰,乃至同一宗教內部的不同學說、不同信念,往往就會產生攻防激烈的「見諍」。而擁有「懲罰」權柄的統治者(包括擁有某種程度之公權力的宗教統治者),很有可能成為異議份子的審判者與加害者。平衡「見諍」的槓桿,就是「言論自由」。對特定宗教或宗教人士施加毀謗或羞辱,未必會受到「言論自由」的法律保障。然而華人社會的宗教組織與宗教人士,鮮少透過司法途徑以爭取公道,原因是,世人普遍認定,「不與世人計較」是宗教人士應有的修為。一般宗教人士衡諸此一不利形勢,只好放棄維護清譽的法律保障。這樣一來,羞辱或誹謗宗教者往往有恃無恐,食髓知味,甚至變本加厲。然而,看似不須付出代價的辱謗行為,卻往往引火自焚。原因是,一再對無辜者施加惡言與惡行,將會依「串習」力而形成致命的惡習與惡癖,卒而付出無法承受的慘重代價。面對種種辱謗,究竟是採取「容忍」態度,還是「還擊」方法為妥?就個人而言,可選擇「正知而住」並予以「斷緣」,也可選擇依慈悲心而予以適切回應,以免姑息養奸,造成「惡人肆意為惡」,「弱勢無助受苦」的負面效果。宗教組織面對辱謗,則應積極導正視聽,必要時即便尋求司法途徑,亦不為過。

For all sentient beings, conflicts may occur, because of our two major mental attachments to, first, the craving or desire and, second, ideas, views, theories, and beliefs. Religious beliefs tend to generate disputes, not only between people of different religious traditions, but also among those who follow different ideals within a religion. A ruler who can exercise punitive authority, just like religious leaders who hold a certain degree of public power, may possibly become a judge and oppressor against dissidents. To balance and manage disputes over different views, the lever will be the freedom of speech. People who slander or humiliate a religion or its followers may not be necessarily protected under free speech laws. However, in Chinese society religious organizations and persons rarely seek judicial remedy for injustice committed against them. The reason can be found in the stereotype that most people hold to regard "avoiding argument" as a praised religious behavior. Being led to unfavorable evaluations, religious people tend to give up reluctantly their legal rights to protect their reputation. As a result, those people with speech that insults religions have no fear of being prosecuted. Taking advantage of the situation, they even abuse and misuse deliberately the right to freedom of speech. However, people with the seemly cost-free insulting and slanderous behavior often invite more trouble for themselves. Because a person who repeatedly acts against the innocent with evil speech and deviltry will be repaid by acquiring a deadly bad habit and character through the force of habitual tendencies, and finally ends up with a disaster or price that he/she can't afford. After all, which approach is more proper to deal with all kinds of insults and slander in front of us? Tolerance or fighting back? A person may choose to stay calm with "sampajanna" and then disconnect him/herself from all possible ties/factors that might lead him/her to response. Alternatively, one can choose to give an appropriate response with great compassion, in order not to nurse a viper in their bosoms and cause negative effects by allowing evil and suffering to occur. As for religious organizations, while facing disgrace and slander, they should actively ensure public understanding of the facts, and when necessary, go through judicial process for an equitable remedy which cannot be too much encouraged.
Table of contents摘要 29
Abstract 31
一、前言 33
二、爭執的根源問題 34
三、平衡「見諍」的操作槓桿——「言論自由」36
四、言論自由與宗教歧視——以「尼姑」用詞為例 38
五、「言論自由」與「宗教容忍」——以「消慈」風暴為例 43
六、結語 45
參考書目 47
一、藏經 47
二、專書 47
三、網站 48
ISSN18133649 (P); 18133649 (E)
Hits66
Created date2016.06.16
Modified date2017.12.08



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