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「深層生態學」的自我實現與自我解構 ── 環境倫理學「整體論」與佛法觀點的回應(之二)=Self-realization and Self-deconstruction in Deep Ecology: A Response to the Holism of Environmental Ethics and the Buddhist Viewpoints Within (II)
Author 釋昭慧 =Shih, Chao-hwei
Source 法印學報=Journal of Dharma Seals
Volumen.6
Date2016.04
Pages1 - 24
Publisher財團法人弘誓文教基金會
Location桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者:玄奘大學宗教與文化學系教授、系主任兼社會科學院院長
Author: Professor and Director, Department of Religion and Culture; Dean, College of Social Science, Hsuan Chuang University

本文係國科會整合型研究計畫《台灣本土宗教倫理思想對生態、環境的論述、影響與前瞻》之第三期報告,子計畫為《台灣環境倫理與動物倫理之佛教論述、影響與前瞻》。該項計畫編號為 NSC 101-2632-H-364-001-MY3-。本計畫執行期間自民國 101 年 08 月 01 日起至 104 年 07 月 31 日止。
This article is the third report on a Research Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology. The project number is NSC 101-2632-H-364-001-MY3. The execution of this project is during August 1, 2012 until July 31, 2015.

本文初稿發表於 104 年 5 月 30 日,第十三屆「印順導師思想之理論與實踐──從傳統到現代,從理論到應用」學術會議。
Keyword整體論=holism; 個體論=individualism; 大地倫理=land ethic; 深層生態學=deep ecology
Abstract西方環境「整體論」(holism)面對著兩種嚴厲的指責——「自然主義的謬誤」與「環境法西斯主義」。整體論者被指責,依於這套邏輯,個體權益將在追求整體最大效益的情況下受到犧牲。
本文探討「深層生態學」的中心思想,以上述兩項質疑,拿來檢視「深層生態學」,獲致它「可以面對這兩種質疑並予以有效化解」的結論。
深層生態學深受佛教的影響,生態界「關係的、全幅的圖像」,類似《華嚴經》的因陀羅網,生態界的每一法與一切諸法相即相入,重重無盡。「人」為價值優位的思維,在此一無限擴大而又相即相入的圖像中,徹底予以解構。
「自我實現」說雖然運用了「自我」或「大我」的詞彙,但在敘述脈絡中,「自我」反倒在無限擴大的生物多樣性與共生之中,實現出它的意義;這是一套心量無限擴大,終而達致「無我」的如理思維。從而在「一」與「一切」共生共存的實相觀照中,產生「眾生平等」而物我一體的胸懷,這是「同體大悲」的印證,與「四無量心」的修習路數較為接近。
佛教環境倫理學既是「整體論」,也是「個體論」,它可以不拘於「一合相」,超拔於「自性見」,以建構一套「離於二邊,說於中道」的系統理論。

There are two accusations that western environmental holism has faced—naturalistic fallacy and ecofascism. According to this logic, holism has been accused of sacrificing individual rights in the pursuit of the maximum benefit for the overall situation.
This paper discusses the core principles of deep ecology. These two doubts that mentioned above can be used to view and draw the conclusion that deep ecology can face both challenge and effectively resolve these doubts.
Influenced deeply by Buddhism, deep ecology shows us an image of ecological community “connected” and “full-sized,” similar to the Indra’s net mentioned in Flower Garland Sutra (Avataṃsaka-sūtra), an image for everything and all things in ecological community are interbe and endlessly connected. The priority thinking, “Human beings first,” is therefore entirely deconstructed in this infinite expansion and interbeing picture.
Although the theory of self-realization applies the terms “self” and “greater self”, in the narrative context, the “self” actually realizes its meaning in this expanding and infinite diversity and symbionts and; this is a unlimited expansion of the mindset, and a rational thinking so that eventually achieve the realization of “non-self.” Having this symbiotic contemplation of reality—“one” and “all” coexist, self will expand his own mindset that “every sentient being as equal” and “union of self and things,” which is the proof of “integrality-like empathy,” and is closer to the practice of “four immeasurable minds.”
Buddhist environmental ethic is both “holism” and “individualism”; it is not only unrestricted to “a composite” but also transcends perceive of self-nature so that it can construct a theory that “without veering to the two extremes, the Buddha expounds the teaching of the middle path.”
Table of contents一、前言 5
二、「深層生態學」之哲學論述 6
(一)奈斯首創的深層生態學 6
1、「深層生態學」與「生態學」 7
2、「淺層生態學」與「深層生態學」 7
3、生態哲學的典範轉移 8
4、「深層生態學」與佛法 10
(二)兩大指控之檢視 17
1、「深層生態學」是否有「自然主義的謬誤」 17
2、「深層生態學」是否「環境法西斯主義」 18
三、結語:離於二邊,說於中道 20
ISSN22241299 (P)
Hits26
Created date2020.06.11



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