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錢謙益僧詩史觀的再省思:從《列朝詩集》選評詩僧談起=An Introspection into Qian Qianyi’s Historical View of Buddhist Masters’ Poetry From Liechao Shiji
Author 廖肇亨 (著)=Liao, Chao-heng (au.)
Source 漢學研究=Chinese Studies
Volumev.37 n.4
Date2019.12
Pages239 -273
Publisher漢學研究中心
Publisher Url http://ccs.ncl.edu.tw/
Location臺北市, 臺灣 [Taipei shih, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者現為中央研究院中國文哲研究所研究員。
Keyword明代佛教=Ming dynasty Buddhism; 詩僧=poet-monk; 錢謙益=Qian Qianyi; 《列朝詩集》=Liechao shiji; 賢首宗=Xianshou school
Abstract本文考察晚明清初江南士大夫錢謙益的僧詩史觀。牧齋所撰《列朝詩集》及小傳已受到學界注目,然學者多以「因詩存史」視之。然若將考察的範圍擴大至牧齋其他的詩文,以及與其交往的僧俗,對此議題應能有更全面的掌握。本文的主要發現有:一、《列朝詩集》對僧詩的去取明顯透露牧齋「揚教抑禪」的態度,當時並不以文學見長的教家僧侶有不少皆被牧齋所輯錄,對賢首宗僧人尤其如此。二、晚明確實叢林詩風大起,然詩僧型態也可說百花齊放。本文透過牧齋的選詩與詩文再反省其心中的詩僧範型。憨山德清、紫柏真可、雪山法杲等同時身兼詩僧領袖(詩藝)與法門義虎(修行)的僧人深受牧齋青睞。但也由於其揚教抑禪的態度,刻意忽略了當時不少以詩聞名的禪僧。三、明清易代後,牧齋出於砥礪明遺民的情懷,對禪門有了新的認識,對寄身禪林的遺民儒者產生共鳴。由本文的考察可知,錢牧齋選《列朝詩集》中的僧詩,既有繼承也有新創,實為一變動發展過程,無論對佛教史或文學史都具有不容抹煞的意義。

This paper unravels Jiangnan scholar-official Qian Qianyi’s 錢謙益 (1582-1664) historical view of Buddhist masters’ poetry 僧詩, or monk poems, in the late Ming and early Qing period. Qian Qianyi's Liechao shiji 列朝詩集 (An Anthology of Poetry) as well as its companion historical biographies have been emphasized by academia on account of their unique employment of poetry to record history. After poring over Qian Qianyi’s literary works and his relationships with other masters and literati, this paper presents a more comprehensive understanding of his thoughts. The selection of poems in Liechao shiji reveals Qian Qianyi’s attitude of “yangjiao yichan” 揚教抑禪 (to appreciate doctrinal schools and disparage Zen), especially his high esteem for the Xianshou school 賢首宗. Secondly, by referring to
Qian Qianyi’s selections and other works, this paper reflects on his paradigm for the poet-monk. Masters who were adroit at literary writing and simultaneously devoted to religious practices, such as Hanshan Deqing 憨山德清(1546-1623), Zibo Zhenke 紫柏真可 (1543-1603), and Xueshan Fagao 雪山法杲, were highly appreciated by Qian Qianyi, but owing to his attitude of “yangjiao yichan,” Qian intentionally neglected many Zen masters who were known for their poetry at that time. Thirdly, following the Ming-Qing transition, Qian Qianyi had shown considerable empathy towards
adherents of the Ming dynasty who became Zen monks, and then acquired a new understanding of the Zen school. This paper elucidates Qian Qianyi’s selection of monk poems, a process which incorporates a passing on of the past and an inspiring of the future, thereby illuminating his prominent role in the history of both Chinese Buddhism and Chinese literature.
Table of contents一、前言:問題之所在 240
二、《春秋》黜僭王之法:從《列朝詩集》選錄僧詩看錢謙益「揚教抑禪」的基本立場 241
三、蔬筍之氣不離本色:《列朝詩集》詩僧類型的再評價 253
四、留得此一點血性:國變滄桑之後的詩僧 262
五、結語 267
引用書目 269
一、傳統文獻 269
二、近人論著 270
ISSN02544466 (P); 02544466 (E)
Hits23
Created date2020.09.21
Modified date2022.02.11



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