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瑜伽行派之聲聞、菩薩「慈悲喜捨」與佛菩薩「大悲」=Srāvaka’s and Bodhisattva’s Meditation on Kindness, Compassion, Empathic Joy, and Equanimity in Yuqieshidi-lun vs. Buddha and Bodhisattva’s Great Compassion”
Author 釋惠敏 (著)=Huimin, Bhikkhu (au.)
Date2013.08
Location北京, 中國 [Peking, China]
Content type會議論文=Proceeding Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note作者單位:法鼓佛教學院校長=President, Dharma Drum Buddhist College;台北藝術大學教授=Professor, Taipei National University of the Arts
Keyword慈=maitrī=kindness; 大悲=mahā-karuṇā=great compassion; 四無量心=four boundless states of mind; 無緣=unconditional concerns; 無生法忍=clear cognition of the unproduced nature of all existences
Abstract以大乘佛教的瑜伽行派之《瑜伽師地論》、《大乘莊嚴經論》為研究文獻,對於其開創者-慈氏(Maitreya;彌勒)之姓氏來源maitri(慈心)為基點,來討論聲聞、菩薩於修「慈悲喜捨」之四「無量心」之瑜伽行(禪修)的異同,以及開展出佛菩薩「大悲」的過程,有下列四項結論:一、相對於印度梵語maitrī(慈)源自神祗Mitra(密特拉 )神 或 mitra(朋友)的誠信關係,漢字「慈」源自表 達「 父母之愛子」的意涵。但是,印度佛教也有類似漢字「慈愛」的意涵的發展。 二、《聲聞地》之「慈愍」所緣之修行要點是:對親友、怨敵,或者無關係的人,平等保持給與利益的意向(意樂),因而引發下、中、上品快樂之禪定境界的殊勝確信(勝解)。其 中 ,「利益之意樂」的心態,可視為是瑜伽行派修「慈倶心」的特色用語。此外,不只是遠離「諸欲惡不善法」所產生的禪定喜樂,而 是從 給予別人利益的意樂而引發快樂的禪定狀態,猶如世間所說「助人為快樂之本」,「慈」對菩薩的修行雖然更有運用的意義,但是《菩薩地》卻不重視自身得禪定的快樂,反而重視觀察眾生的一百一十種苦,以及緣十九苦,發起大悲(mahā-karuṇā)。其中,發起大悲的第一個原因:依據「甚深、微細、難了諸有情苦」為對 象,或許是與大乘佛教將「苦集滅道」四聖諦以及阿含經典常說「緣起(pratītya-samutpāda)甚深」的意義相結合有關。由 此,可看出《菩薩地》於「四無量」(慈悲喜捨)中,重視「悲」的傾向。 三、《菩薩地》運用出自《無盡意菩薩所問經》之具大乘佛教特色的三種(有情緣、法緣、無緣)「所緣」之「四無量心」,似乎大乘佛教將傳統的「四無量(apramāṇa)心 」, 以 《 般若經》的「畢竟空」、「無生法忍」等教義,開展成為「無緣」anālaṃbana)、「無盡(akṣaya)」法門。四、《莊嚴經論》之「四無量心」中,對於四無量心的敘述有12頌,對於「悲」的敘述則有36頌,或許也是延續《菩薩地》觀眾生苦,修悲無量的強調有關。從《莊嚴經論》開頭「造論旨趣」是「…於受苦人間,從悲愍」也有類似的意義。最後,論述「得無生法忍」是屬於「初地」或「八地」差異,影響對於「無緣」四無量心階位判斷的不同。

With reference to the texts Śrāvakabhūmi, Bodhisattvabhūmi of Yogācārabhūmi-śāstra and Mahāyānasūtrālaṃkāra of the Yogācāra school of Buddhism as the research literature, and based on the derivation of the surname of its founder Maitreya, “maitrī (meaning kindness),” this paper will discuss the similarities and differences between the yoga practice of śrāvakas and that of bodhisattvas when they practice the four boundless states of kindness, compassion, empathic joy, and equanimity; it will also investigate how the characterization of buddhas and bodhisattvas as “great compassionate ones” developed over time. The rendered conclusions are as follows:
1. Whereas the Sanskrit maitrī is derived from the Indian deity Mitra as well as the word “mitra (meaning friend)” which connotes honesty and trust, the Chinese character “慈(kindness)” expresses the love of parents toward their children. However, a development of the denotation of “loving-kindness” also can be found in Indian Buddhism.
2. The main points for practicing “kindness” as a meditative object in the text of the Śrāvakabhūmi is to maintain the intention of equally giving benefits to relatives, enemies, and the unrelated, so as to generate the determination (excellent understanding) of meditative concentrations with inferior, middling and superior happy states respectively. In the above context, the “intention of (giving) benefits” is considered a specific term used in the practice of “mind-of-kindness” in the Yogācāra school. Apart from the joy and happiness attained when being secluded from sensual pleasures and unwholesome states in meditative concentration, it emphasizes the happy states obtained because of the intention of giving benefits, as in the worldly saying, “Helping others is the spring of happiness”. Although “kindness” is essential for bodhisattvas to advance toward achievement in the Bodhisattvabhūmi, rather than putting emphasis on their own happiness in meditative concentration, bodhisattvas focus on contemplating the hundred and ten sufferings of sentient beings and meditating on the nineteen sufferings, to arouse great compassion. Among them, the first reason of arousing great compassion is contemplating “those sufferings of sentient beings that are profound, subtle, and difficult to be comprehended,” which may be because Mahāyāna Buddhism assimilates the teaching in the Four Noble Truths—suffering, the cause of suffering, cessation of suffering, and path to cessation of suffering—with the teaching that dependent origination is profound in the Āgama sutras. Accordingly, it is evident that among the four boundless states of kindness, compassion, empathic joy, and equanimity, the Bodhisattvabhūmi especially tends to stress the aspect of compassion.
3. Seeing that the Bodhisattvabhūmi adopted the distinctive way of practicing the four boundless mind states in Mahāyāna Buddhism—relying on three kinds of meditative objects: observing sentient beings, observing the dharma, and without objects (unconditional concerns), which originated in
Table of contents一、maitrī(慈心)、Maitreya(慈氏)的語義考察
二、《聲聞地》慈愍所緣與能緣
(一)四無量心與慈愍所緣
(二)「慈倶心」、「無怨、無敵、無損害」
(三)「廣、大、無量」
(四)「勝解、遍滿、具足住」
三、《菩薩地》三種「慈悲喜捨」與「大悲」
(一)從「無量」、「無緣」到「無盡」
(二)《菩薩地》三種「慈悲喜捨」之階位
(三)佛菩薩之「大悲」
四、《大乘莊嚴經論》三種「慈悲喜捨」與「大悲」
(一)從「慈悲喜捨」到「大悲」
(甲)〔四〕「無量」〔心〕分別(apramāṇa-vibhāga) :12 頌(第 17-28 偈)
(乙)「悲」分別(karunā-vibhāga):36 頌(第 29-64 偈)
(二)三種「慈悲喜捨」之菩薩階位
結論
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Created date2020.11.09



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