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從經到論:管窺印度佛教文獻史上的重大變遷=From Sutra to Abhidharma: An Important Transition in the History of Indian Buddhist Literature
Author 關則富
Source 成大歷史學報
Volumev.53
Date2017.12
Pages135 - 177
Location臺南, 臺灣 [Tainan, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Keyword佛教=Buddhism; 論藏; 阿毘達磨=Abhidharma=Abhidhamma=Abhidharma-pitaka; 上座部=Theravada; 南傳上座部; 說一切有部=Sarvastivada; 法藏部=Dharmaguptaka
Abstract佛典包含了「三藏」,即經藏、律藏、論藏。佛教各傳統均承認「經」、「律」為佛陀所說。「論」(阿毘達磨)則是後來的佛教徒為了闡明「契經」(簡譯為「經」)中的要義並將它系統化而撰述的著作。不少契經中已可見到阿毘達磨的雛形。佛教分裂後,一些部派發展出各自的「阿毘達磨藏」(論藏)。本文探討阿毘達磨如何從「契經」的形式發展到「論藏」,以及現存三個部派的論藏如何對其經的內容進行解釋、分類與系統化,由此創發各具特色的阿毘達磨論議方法。諸多契經的講述方式是為了適應各式各樣聽眾的需要,在各種情境對各類根機的人物講道。典型的阿毘達磨論議方式則對經中的這些敘事內容不予理會,純粹對佛陀的教義(法)盡其所能地分析成許多「究竟真實」的基本要素,用各種的分類法將這些要素作歸類,以組織完整的教義體系為目標。那麼「阿毘達磨藏」(論藏)是要服務什麼樣的人?一些部派撰述「論藏」的動機為何?那些因素促成「論藏」的興起?本文將論述以上這些問題。

The Buddhist canon is composed of the "three baskets" (tri-pitaka), i.e. the Sutra-pitaka, the Vinaya-pitaka, and the Abhidharma-pitaka. The various Buddhist traditions recognize that the sutras and the Vinaya were delivered by the Buddha but the Abhidharma texts were composed by later Buddhists to elucidate and systematize the essential doctrines in the sutras. The prototype of abhidharma had already appeared in a number of sutras. After schisms occurred in Buddhism, some sects or schools developed their own Abhidharma-pitaka. In this essay, I explore how abhidharma was developed from the style of sutras into the Abhidharma-pitaka and how the extant Abhidharma-pitakas of three schools interpreted, classified, and systematized the Buddha's discourses in different ways, thereby creating their own methods of Abhidhannic discussion. The sutraz were tailored to the needs of a wide variety of audiences and were expounded under diverse circumstances to individuals with different capacities for comprehension. By contrast the typical Abhidharmic way of discussion, while disregarding the narratives contained in the sutras, analyzed the Buddha's teaching (Dharma) into all possible "ultimately real" elements and classified them according to various schemes of taxonomy in order to construct a complete doctrinal system. This essay will attempt to answer the following questions: Who were the people that the Abhidhanna-pitaka was meant to serve? What motivated some sects to compose the Abhidharma-pitaka? Which factors brought about the rise of the Abhidharma-pitakat?
Table of contents壹、緒論 137
貳、從「契經」到「論藏」 140
一、形式上為「契經」的阿毘達磨 140
二、注釋一部具阿毘達磨性質契經的論書:引述他經以解此經 142
三、引述契經而作阿毘達磨解釋的論書:保留契經的敘事 146
四、引述契經而作阿毘達磨解釋的論書:省略契經的敘事 148
(一)、經與論的交互影響 151
五、獨立於契經之外的阿毘達磨論書 155
參、撰述論藏之緣由 161
一、宣揚部派學說,鞏固部派地位 163
二、深化教義認知,服務佛教菁英 166
三、僧團經濟豐足,定居研究著述 168
肆、結論 170
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Created date2020.11.26
Modified date2020.11.26



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