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「十遍處」於各佛教傳承間的演變與差異之比較研究=A Comparative Research on the Evolution and methodological features of "Kasiṇa Meditation" among Different Buddhist Heritages
Author 釋昭慧 (著)=Shih, Chao-hwei (au.) ; 釋性廣 (著)=Shih, Shing-kuang (au.)
Source 法印學報=Journal of Dharma Seals
Volumen.11
Date2020.12
Pages1 - 32
Publisher財團法人弘誓文教基金會
Location桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
Content type期刊論文=Journal Article
Language中文=Chinese
Note釋昭慧為玄奘大學宗教與文化學系教授;釋性廣為玄奘大學宗教與文化學系兼任副教授兼董事長。
本文係科技部研究計畫〈「十遍處」於各佛教傳承間的演變與差異之比較研究〉(A Comparative Research on the Evolution and methodological features of "Kasina Meditation" among Different Buddhist Heritages)之研究成果。該項計畫編號:NSC MOST 108-2410-H-364-004-。本計畫執行期間自民國108年08月01日起至109年07月31日止。
Keyword遍=kasiṇa=complete; 十遍處=dasa kasiṇrāyatanāni=ten spheres of totality; 止=Śamatha=quiescence or tranquility; 觀=Vipaśyanā=insight; 所緣=ālambana=sense object or object of cognition; 業處=kammatthana=an object of meditation
Abstract本篇論文中,作者研究「遍」或「遍處」禪觀法之原理與原則,並關注不同佛教傳承中的「十遍處」,尤其是上座部,說一切有部與大乘瑜伽行派。
覺音的《清淨道論》記述的「十遍處」是:地遍、水遍、火遍、風遍、青遍、黃遍、赤遍、白遍、限定虛空遍與光明遍。
但根據原始佛典如《尼柯耶》與《阿含經》,申請人初步發現兩點:
一、「十遍處」在原始佛典中出現的次數不多。此外,「遍處」作為一類禪修方法,在原始佛典中並沒有受到高度的關注。
二、「十遍處」中沒有「光明遍」,而是「識遍」。至於 "ākāsa kasiNa"原始佛典也只是稱其為或「虛空遍」,然則「虛空」是「封閉空間(或有限空間)的代名詞嗎?這必須進一步而作探討。
在上座部佛教中,「遍」指的是一種古老的禪修系統,作為四十種「止業處」中的第一大類「止業處」,「遍處」旨在使用視覺對象,培養修持者的專注力,並且為進一步的禪觀修學奠定基礎。
本研究比較原始佛教到不同學派間,「遍處」的學說演變和方法特徵,包括原始文本、修學條目、理論內容和修持技巧。作者探討這些差異的形成原因,這涉及不同禪法系統的理論結構與經驗累積,也是不同學派之禪師與論師們在禪學方面的鉅大貢獻。

In this paper, the author intends to study the theory and principle of "kasiṇa" (totality) or "kasiṇāyatanāni" (spheres of totality) meditation methods. In addition, the author also concerned about the different evolution of meditation methods "Dasa kasiṇā" (ten kasiṇas) among different Buddhist heritages, especially Theravada, Sarvāstivāda, and Yogācāra, a major Mahāyāna philosophical school.
There are ten kasinas described in Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga. That is: earth (paṭhavī kasiṇa), water (āpo kasiṇa), fire (tejo kasiṇa), air or wind (vāyo kasiṇa), blue or green (nīla kasiṇa), yellow (pīta kasiṇa), red (lohita kasiṇa), white (odāta kasiṇa), enclosed space, hole or aperture (ākāsa kasiṇa), bright light (āloka kasiṇa).
But according to the original Buddhist scriptures like Nikāya, Agama sutras, The author initially found two points:
1. There were not many times that "dasa kasiṇyatanāni" appear in the original Buddhist scriptures. In addition, "dasa kasiṇāyatanāni" as a type of meditation methods, were not highly regarded in the original Buddhist scriptures.
2. There are no bright light (āloka) kasiṇa in these ten kinds of kasiṇas, but instead of consciousness (viññāṇa) kasiṇa. As for "ākāsa", the original Buddhist scriptures only call it "space-kasina". However, is "ākāsa" synonymous with "enclosed space" or "limited space"? Perhaps further research is needed.
In Theravada Buddhism, kasiṇa refers to an ancient system of meditatio. As the first category of forty samatha kammatthanas (canonical objects of meditation, 止業處), Kasiṇa meditation uses visual objects to focus the mind, intended to cultivate the concentration ability of practitioners, and create a foundation for further practices of meditation.
This paper compare academic evolution and methodological features of "Dasa kasiṇā" among Primitive Buddhism and different Buddhist schools, including original texts, practical items and theoretical content and practice skills. The author explore the reasons for these differences, and pay attention to the relationship among these three types of meditation methods. This involves different theoretical structures and experience accumulation of different Buddhist meditation systems, and is also a great contribution of the meditation masters and śāstra writers from different heritages.
Table of contents一、前言 5
二、原始教典中的「十遍處」 8
(一)十遍處之條目 8
(二)十遍處之修行特色 10
三、說一切有部的「十遍處」義 15
(一)十遍處之加行 15
(二)十遍處之效益 19
四、南傳上座部的「十遍」義 20
(一)十遍業處之遍作相 20
(二)十遍業處之效益 22
五、對照與解析後二「遍處」之差異 23
(一)後二「遍處」之條目差異 23
(二)條目差異的緣由探討 24
六、結語 27
參考書目 30
一、藏經 30
二、專書 30
三、論文 30
四、網站 31
ISSN22241299 (P)
Hits6
Created date2021.08.25
Modified date2021.08.25



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