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圓珍天台密教判教觀的發展=Yuan-Jhen's New System of Doctrinal Classification of Tiantai and the Esoteric Teaching
著者 黃英傑 =Huang, Kind-jauk
掲載誌 圓光佛學學報=Yuan Kuang Journal of Buddhist Studies
巻号n.9
出版年月日2004.12
ページ215 - 244
出版者圓光佛學研究所=Yuan Kuang Buddhist College
出版サイト http://www.ykbi.edu.tw/
出版地桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
キーワード天台; 密教; 台密; 圓珍; 判教; 圓密一致; 顯劣密勝; 五時五教; 理同事勝
抄録中國與日本天台宗的最大差別,是日本天台與密教的結合。過去的廣修、維蠲兩位中國天台祖師,對密教沒有太多關切,他們是站在天台的立場,應請而對密教進行判攝。圓珍批評中國天台祖師對密教判攝的不當,是企圖從密教來會通天台的。如果加上日本東密宗祖師空海,完全站在密宗的觀點去判釋其他宗派,可以說是三種截然不同的詮釋需要與角度。
本文以思想史的角度,從日本天台宗創始人最澄的顯密同傳並授論起,以日本天台祖師圓珍的天台密教觀,做為探討台密思想發展的主要內容。對圓珍勇於駁斥中國天台祖師的判教觀,提出的顯劣密勝、五時五教等新判教的理路加以解析。主張日本天台與密教結合的發生,是外在歷史的事實,為因應尋求此實然情況內在合理性的詮釋需求,而產生台密獨特的判教觀。如此看來,判教本身是時代詮釋需求的產物,時代在變,需求也不斷改變,因此到了二十一世紀,判教的工作也應持續開展下去,而不是一成不變的。

This paper is based on the view of ideology history to discuss the development of the thoughts of Japanese Tian-tai and the esoteric teaching. It embarks on an over view concerning the history of Japanese Tian-tai school and the founder of Tian-tai sect Zui-Cheng(最澄 767-822,Saicho in Japanese), who gave the sutra and mantra teachings at same time. This paper mainly analyzes Japanese Tian-tai master Yuan-Jhen's new view point of Tiantai and the esoteric teaching, such as the teachings of mantra are higher than sutra, and establishing the "five teachings" system to supplement Tien-tai system of the "four teachings".
The marked difference between Chinese and Japanese Tiantai schools is the combination of Tian-tai and the esoteric teaching in Japan. In the past, the two Chinese Tiantai masters Guang-Xiu and Wei-Juan do not deeply concern about the esoteric teaching. Their standpoints are based on Tiantai to systematize the esoteric teaching into doctrinal classification. But Yuan-Jhen tries to combine the esoteric teaching with Tian-tai as a rational system of doctrinal classification. Therefore he criticizes the Chinese Tiantai masters' wrong interpret of the esoteric teaching. Kong-Hai(空海,Kūkai, 774-835), the Japanese mantrayana(真言宗,Shingon sect)founder, interprets other systems of doctrinal classification from the point of esoteric teaching. The standpoints, interpretation and points of view of these three masters are totally different.
We conclude that the combination of Tian-tai and the esoteric teaching in Japan is based on the historic fact. In order to offer the inner rational explanatory for the facts, the masters created the unique view point of Japanese Tian-tai Pan-Jiao. Since the system of doctrinal classification is the production of times' interpretation demand, so it will be changed according to the different of time. Therefore, the works of the 21 centuries' system of doctrinal classification will keep going.
ISSN16086848 (P)
ヒット数1886
作成日2006.12.14
更新日期2017.07.27



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