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盛唐佛教造像所蘊含的法華思想 -- 以敦煌莫高窟45窟為中心的探討=The Lotus Philosophy Implied in the Image-Making at the Peak of the Tang Dynasty -- with Focus on No. 45 of the Mo-gao Caves in Dun-huang
著者 郭祐孟 =Guo, Yo-meng
掲載誌 圓光佛學學報=Yuan Kuang Journal of Buddhist Studies
巻号n.9
出版年月日2004.12
ページ269 - 298
出版者圓光佛學研究所=Yuan Kuang Buddhist College
出版サイト http://www.ykbi.edu.tw/
出版地桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
キーワード敦煌莫高窟=Mo-gao Caves in Dun-huang; 法華=Lotus Sutra; 造像=image-making; 圖像結構; 盛唐=at the peak of the Tang Dynasty
抄録法華思想對漢傳佛教影響深遠,現存的南北朝到隋唐造像中流露出濃郁的法華味。在敦煌佛教教團與思想的發展過程裡,法華同涅槃、華嚴、法相唯識,乃至禪宗、淨土學互領鰲頭,也相互學習含攝。尤其天台學的傳入,對觀音信仰與義理的提升,發揮了最大的助力,而這其中的思想軌跡具體地落實在當地的石窟造像。
莫高窟45窟的窟主雖然已經無法查考,但其壁畫技藝高超,足為敦煌盛唐藝術之徵,若說是由敦煌當地望族或政要延僧開鑿,亦是合理的。45窟的圖像結構有三個特色值得討論:(一)法華經的靈山會與虛空會、(二)觀音經與法華三昧的內在聯繫、(三)阿彌陀淨土與法華經的關係,本文便是以此三項作為中心論題。
靈山會著重在會三歸一開權顯實,以虛空會密表開近迹顯遠本,彼此互成,雙說諸法實相。並且,此二會的內涵已經具足法華全體,將45窟的圖像義理核心建構出來。自從竺道生將妙音與觀音的「普現色身三昧」視為從自利與利他的兩個角度對於法華平等大慧的實踐與印證,觀音的教學便開始深刻化!祂可以是阿彌陀佛的脇侍,助往安養國;亦可以是代表法華三昧的落實者,突顯其本地的深遠;或是象徵一切諸佛的共同悲體;也被視為如世間神祇的慈悲化身。實際上,45窟正龕與南壁的題材組合,就是《法華經》的體用觀,而這正也是最適合我們娑婆世界的教化模式之一。吉藏認為《法華經》具有「欲顯諸菩薩念佛三昧」的緣起,以能、所雙亡達到禮佛、念佛的真諦。45窟以正壁靈山虛空會為體、左壁西方淨土變相為用的圖像結構,便有了成立的合理性。而在教義上特別把往生極樂與法華思想的密切連結突顯出來,則是唐代佛教才有的發展。
本文也從217、23、45、46四窟的圖像比對,找出盛唐敦煌石窟法華圖像發展的脈絡。以盛唐的時間順序來說,217窟開先河,45窟濃縮精華並嘗試將其對應關係明確化,23窟則是進一步朝向以法華為主體而含攝多種經變的新道路。以同時期的橫向連結來看,45和46兩窟是一組窟洞,在題材上反映了以法華為主幹,以涅槃為扶疏,以觀音法門或彌陀淨土為入門方便,藉釋迦教法見過去七佛,以契入十方三世諸佛體性為終極目標等。
盛唐佛教造像所蘊含的法華思想,當然不是僅止於對莫高窟45窟的探討,其表現在圖像世界的深度與廣度十分多元,本小文僅見冰山一角,望諸賢達兩正以為善禱!

The Lotus School philosophy has had profound influence on Chinese Buddhism, as manifested in the existing images made from the North and South Dynasties to the Sui and Tang Dynasties. In the ideological development of the Buddhist community in Dun-huang, the various schools such as Lotus, Nirvana, Hua-yen, Fa-xiang, Zen, and Pure-land vied with one another for primacy, but also learned from one another. The emergence of the Tien-tai philosophy especially helped to raise the doctrinal level of the Avalokitesvara faith. All these traces of philosophical development are solidly reflected in the local rock-cave images.
The sponsor of No. 45 of the Mo-gao Caves is unknown, but judging from the superb craftsmanship which was typical of the artistic achievements at the peak of the Tang Dynasty, it is not unreasonable to assume that it was chiseled by someone hired by a prominent family or high official in Tun-huang. The images of No. 45 cave has three structural features: (1) the assembly at the Vulture Peak and the assembly in the sky in the Lotus Sutra, (2) the internal link between the Avalokitesvara sutra and the Lotus samadhi, and (3) the relationship between the Amitabha Pure Land and the Lotus Sutra. These three items are the focus of discussion in this paper.
The discourse in the Vulture Peak assembly emphasizes the integration of the Three Vehicles into the One Vehicle and the explanation of the expedient means to reveal the ultimate truth. The assembly in the sky emerges to reveal a remote story through the present event. The two scenes reinforce each other in the revelation of the ultimate truth of all things. The contents of the discourses in the two assemblies sufficiently cover all the doctrinal matters of the Lotus Sutra and constitute the core meanings of the images at No. 45 cave. Since the time when Ju Dao-shen, from both self-benefiting and altruistic points of view, regarded the “samadhi of universally manifested body” of Wonder Sound and Avalokitesvara Bodhisattvas as a realization of the great universal wisdom stated in the Lotus Sutra, the teachings about Avalokitesvara have been deepening. He can be an attendant to Amitabha Buddha helping sentient beings go to the Western Paradise. He can be a representative of those who have really entered the Lotus Samadhi, thus showing the profundity of his religious cultivation. He can be a symbol of the compassion of all Buddhas. He is also considered an embodiment of the kindness and compassion of all gods of the world. The grouping of the sculptural subjects in the main shrine and on the southern wall displays the ideas of substance and function expressed in the Lotus Sutra. Ji-zang thinks that the Lotus Sutra was taught with “an intention to reveal bodhisattvas’ samadhi of remembering the Buddha,” so that one may reach the ultimate state of worshiping and remembering the Buddha by totally dissolving the subject and the object. This is the idea shown in the image structure of No. 45 cave, in which the main
ISSN16086848 (P)
研究種類石窟; 佛教圖像; 雕塑造像
研究年代唐代
研究地域甘肅(敦煌莫高窟)
ヒット数2089
作成日2006.12.14
更新日期2017.07.28



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