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晚唐宋初天台宗在吳越地區的發展=Development of the Tian-tai School in the Wu-yue Region During the Late Tang and Early Song Dynasties
著者 賴建成 =Lai, Jian-cheng
掲載誌 圓光佛學學報=Yuan Kuang Journal of Buddhist Studies
巻号n.9
出版年月日2004.12
ページ299 - 324
出版者圓光佛學研究所=Yuan Kuang Buddhist College
出版サイト http://www.ykbi.edu.tw/
出版地桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
キーワード天臺宗; 吳越地區; 晚唐宋初
抄録隋唐時代,天台、賢首、禪宗、淨土接踵追步,走上文化舞台,充份顯示出中國佛學基本上已經走上了獨立發展的道路,不再單靠印度傳來的學說給拂加被,而開始有大量僧家對佛經之詮釋,以及弘法的著作出現。邁入中唐,禪宗由達摩的「藉教悟宗」發展到慧能(638-713),直指當前一念本來解脫自在,把佛法從高遠處引向平實。唐中葉以後,禪宗與淨土信仰最盛,天台華嚴宗次之,四者皆與禪定之學有關。鈴木大拙在《禪佛教入門》書中說:「佛教在遠東,如果能發展到滿足其民眾靈性渴望的話,那麼佛教就是非成長到禪的地步不可」。而天台與諸宗不同,在其主張妄心觀,而非真心觀,然同指向不動智。
安史之亂及會昌法難後,依賴道場與寺院經濟的教下諸宗,大受波及,經教散佚嚴重,又經晚唐五代的離亂,在北方諸宗罕見大德出世。而在南方因錢鏐保境安民較他國為力,各地避難的僧侶聞風而至興建道場興揚教法,因此會昌法難後苟延殘存的教法,得在吳越地區生根發展。當中禪宗最盛,淨土、天台宗次之,而三者關係密切。天台宗在吳越國,如同境內,所以本文以天台宗作為主要闡釋的要點。

During Sui and Tang Dynasties, the Tian-tai, Hua-yen, Zen, and Pure-land Schools appeared one after anther, fully signaling the independent development of Chinese Buddhism. A significant number of commentaries to the sutras and other preaching works started to turn out. In the mid-Tang Dynasty, the Zen School evolved from Damo’s doctrine of “realizing the ultimate truth through verbal teachings” into Hui-neng’s instantaneous emancipation, and thus brought the Buddha Dharma from a remote high-flown spot to the earthly reality. After the middle of the Tang Dynasty, the Zen and the Pure-land Schools became the most popular, followed by Tien-tai and Hua-yen. All the four schools had something to do the learning of meditation.
After the An-Shi Rebellion and the Hui-chang Persecution of Buddhists, all the schools which relied on the financial support of temples and monasteries were greatly affected, and an enormous amount of scriptures and other religious implements were lost. The situation worsened because of social disintegration and chaos during the late Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties. Therefore, very few eminent monastic leaders of any school appeared in north China. In the south, however, because Qian-liu, founder of the Wu-yue Kingdom, made great efforts to protect the territory and the people, clerics all over China came to seek shelter and establish temples to propagate the Dharma. As a result, the faltering religion left after the Hui-chang Persecution had a chance to take roots and develop in the Wu-yue region (modern Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and northeast part of Fujian). Among the various schools the Zen School was most popular, followed by the Pure-land and the Tian-tai Schools. And the three were closely related. Tian-tai was native to the Wu-yue region, so it is the focus of discussion in this paper.
ISSN16086848 (P)
ヒット数1801
作成日2006.12.14
更新日期2017.07.27



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