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敦煌莫高窟 361 窟之研究=Research on Dun-huang Mo-kao Cave 361
著者 郭祐孟 (著)=Guo, Yu-meng (au.)
掲載誌 圓光佛學學報=Yuan Kuang Journal of Buddhist Studies
巻号n.15
出版年月日2009.10
出版者圓光佛學研究所=Yuan Kuang Buddhist College
出版サイト http://www.ykbi.edu.tw/
出版地桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
キーワード敦煌=Dun-huang; 361窟=Cave361; 曼荼羅=Ma□□alas; 五臺山圖=Paintings of the Mount Wu-t'ai; 藥師淨土變=Tableau of Bhai□ajyagūru pure land
抄録敦煌莫高窟第 361 窟是一座完工於九世紀前期的小型洞窟,加深的覆斗頂,特意凸顯供養需求的重層佛龕,題材豐富的經變圖與曼荼羅
圖,可說是吐蕃時期洞窟的成熟模式。整體來說,題材多樣而布局嚴謹,是一座以佛塔空間為意象,充滿顯、密佛教內涵的佛殿式洞窟。在敦煌石窟營造史上,361 窟具有承先啟後的特殊意義。
本文首先針對 361 窟佛龕兩側的聖山圖(以「五臺山圖」為主)做些分析,並推論:它的原始形式可能與唐高宗時期西京會昌寺會頤和尚傳
出的「五臺山小帳」有關;並且與日僧圓仁所記載的唐文宗時期天竺僧來華摹寫「五臺山諸靈化傳碑」,以及沙門義圓請畫博士繪製「五臺山化現圖」以東傳日本國之事,可以相互參考。而圖中強調文殊菩薩威德神變與靈驗事蹟的特質,是繼承著慧祥《古清涼傳》以來的傳統。活動於唐代宗時期的法照和尚,他與五臺山的特殊因緣也值得我們注意。另外,圖中出現兩次「僧人與老人互動」的畫面,作者結合相關文獻做了比對,釐清這個宗教神秘故事演化的趣味性。
敦煌密教的興盛,與唐天寶年間不空赴河西設灌頂壇,開闢譯場,大事弘密有直接關係。從現存敦煌文獻中的密教內容來看,表明不空當
時主要傳授的應該是金剛界的密法。而 361 窟窟頂所鋪陳的曼荼羅圖,結合著「三昧耶曼荼羅」與「大曼荼羅」的形式;一方面延續敦煌傳統的方位千佛圖,一方面開啟了敦煌五方佛曼荼羅的先河!本文從其四方佛的靈獸座騎,追溯其文獻和圖像演化的實況,推論它們比較有可能是來自於長安佛寺的圖像粉本。
最後則是探討了側壁的東方淨土變相圖,梳理出它在敦煌石窟藥師經變發展脈絡中的新元素;作者並參酌敦煌唯識學派對《藥師經》的詮
釋,指出它們對於當時淨土觀點和圖像的可能影響。作者也附帶討論了琉璃世界的建築群,對其中心塔堂的設計意象提出看法。本文認為:在宗教藝術的經營上,361 窟轉向袖珍細膩風格,達到勸發往生的像教目的,無疑是相當成功的。

Cave 361 at Mo-kao Dun-huang was built in the early Ninth Century.Several characteristics indicate it as a matured floor plan during the Tibetan occupation, such as the lofted inverted squared-funnel shaped ceiling, a double-layered niche which stresses the need for offering, and the sutra tableaux as well as maṇḍalas in a variety of topics. As a whole, the diversified decorations of both esoteric and exoteric Buddhist imageries are centralized around the three-dimensional stūpa and programmed as a temple itself. The decorative and structural elements mentioned above make this cave extremely important in the construction history of Dun-huang caves. In the beginning, this paper analyzes the sacred mountain paintings (focuses on the painting of the Mount Wu-t’ai) along both sides of the niche
and infers that it might originate from the Petite Record of the Mount Wu-tai (五臺山小帳) written by Monk Hui-yi(會頤) of the Hui-chang Temple at His-an during the Tang Wen-tsung’s reign. In addition, the accounts that the
Japanese Monk Yuan-zan(圓仁) recorded that Indian monks came to China to copy the “Stele of Hagiographies of the Efficacious Incidents of the Mount Wu-t’ai” and that shrmana Yi-yuan(義圓) asked a professional
painter to depict the Apparition of the Mount Wu-t’ai and took it to Japan would shed some lights on the study of this cave. The mural stresses the tradition of virtues, supernatural powers, and efficacious elements which

follow Hui-hsiang’s Biography of the Ancient Ching-liang. In addition, the special relationship between Mount Wu-t’ai and Monk Fa-chao of Tang Tai-tsung’s period is also worth noticing. Moreover, different editions of
relevant texts and the interactions between the old man and the monk in the picture are cross-referenced to delineate the development of this mythical religious legend.
Amoghavajra went to Dun-huang area between the years 742 to 756 to set up a tantric ceremonial place for abhiṣeka and translation workshop. As a result, there were traces of tantric influence on the Buddhism in Dun-huang afterward. The surviving texts found in Dun-huang reveal that the major practice Amoghavajra taught there was the vajradhātu sect. The maṇḍala on the ceiling of cave 361 is a merge of the samaya maṇḍala and the mahāmaṇḍala. On the one hand, it inherited the tradition of the Thousand Buddhas of the directions. On the other hand, it started another
convention of Five Buddhas in Dunhuang. This paper traces the spiritual animals on which the four Buddhas ride in both textual and pictorial sources and concludes that it is likely a copy from model sketches of the images in Chang-an.
The last section of this article analyzes the Eastern Pure Land sūtra tableau on the side wall, places it into the context of the Bhaiṣajyaguru sūtra tableaux in Dun-huang, and found a new element in it. In the light of the Conscious-Only interpretation of the Bhaiṣajyagūru sūtra in Dun-huang, the author points out possible influences of the Conscious-Only interpretation on the concept of Pure Land and these images. In addition, the architecture group of the world of vaidūra especially the stūpa-centered de
目次一、引言 147
二、敦煌莫高窟第 361 窟的形制與造像內容 147
三、莫高窟第 361 窟「塔龕」中的戒律圖和五臺山圖 149
四、莫高窟第 361 窟窟頂曼荼羅內容再探 160
五、莫高窟第 361 窟北壁東方淨土變相的新因素 167
小 結 173


ISSN16086848 (P)
ヒット数1087
作成日2009.12.18
更新日期2017.08.08



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