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唐宋關羽信仰初探 -- 兼談其與佛教之因緣=A Study on the Kuan-yu Cult of the Tang and Sung Dynasties and its relationship with Buddhism
著者 王見川 =Wang, Chien-chuan
掲載誌 圓光佛學學報=Yuan Kuang Journal of Buddhist Studies
巻号n.6
出版年月日2001.12
ページ111 - 126
出版者圓光佛學研究所=Yuan Kuang Buddhist College
出版サイト http://www.ykbi.edu.tw/
出版地桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
キーワード關羽信仰; 關羽廟; 唐; 宋
抄録三國人物中死後成神並為民眾立廟祭拜者不少,其中以關羽的祠廟最多,尤其是宋元以後,關羽廟急速增加,至清初幾已遍布全中國. 唐代的關廟至少有玉泉山關廟. 四川府關侯祠河郢州關侯祠三間. 其中以玉泉山關廟最為人重視. 玉泉山關廟之所以地位突出,除與這是關羽戰死顯聖地有關外,和玉泉寺的寺僧關係密切,玉泉寺僧積極地推展關廟,與他們視關羽為佛教中人有關. 透過他們的傳佈,關公建玉泉寺的傳說廣泛流傳. 關羽信仰流傳到宋代有了重大的變化,這表現在三方面:關羽廟的祀典化. 關羽信仰內涵的佛教化與道教化,關羽重祀的多元化. 歷來研究關羽信仰者頗多,但由於史料發掘不多,唐宋時期關羽信仰的面貌仍存在著一些空白,特別是關於"關三郎"的性質尚待釐清.《北夢瑣言》中的"關三郎" 與《雲谿友議》中的"關三郎" 是同名異實的二個不同神靈. 前者是指華嶽三郎,後者指的是關平. 本文利用《關王夢?》的地方誌. 筆記小說.《宋會要》等資料,就以上各點加以釐清論述.

After the passing of the protagonists of the Three Kingdoms period,there sprung up many temples created by the common people dedicated to the worship of these heroes, the most popular being the ones dedicated to Guan-yu [關羽]. Especially in the post-Song period,temples dedicated to Guan-yu quickly multiplied. During the early Qing period [清朝],temples dedicated to Guan-yu could be found everywhere. From early on,there have been many historians that researched the cult of Guan-yu,but due to a lack of records various aspects of the Guan-yu cult failed to produce significant findings. There was a special need for further research on the character Guan San-lang.
Sources used in this paper include Guan Wang Shi Ji [關王事?],local gazetteers, notes, novels and Song Hui Yao [宋會要],Assembled Essentials of the Song Dynasty,among others. Famous Guan-yu temples during the Tang Dynasty include the three temples of Yu Quan Shan temple [玉泉山寺],Guan Hou Ci [關侯祠] in Sichuan-fu [四川府] and Guan Hou Ci in Yinzhou [郢州].
The reason for the prominence of the Yu Quan Shan Temple is that its physical location was where Guan-yu died in battle and where there occurred his spiritual manifestation. Furthermore,Guan-yu is closely tied to a Buddhsit monastery there by the name of Yu Quan Monastery and its order of monks. It is because that the monks of Yu Quan Monastery propagated the legend of Guan-yu Establishing the Yu Quan Monastery that many temples dedicated to Guan-yu's worship flourished later on. The reason for the zealous propagation of Guan-yu's temples by the monks of Yu Quan Monastery was because they reckoned him to be an important deity in the Buddhist religion.
Whether the perspective of Guan-yu is related from the viewpoint of him as a specific character deity,the spiritual powers that he possessed or his roles as a spiritual protector of a local area, i.e.a spiritual landlord,he is referred to as the character Guan San-lang [關三郎] in the works Bei Meng Suo Yan [北夢瑣言] and Yun Xi You Yi [雲谿友議]. However,the character Guan San-lang in these two works are two different deities. In the former,it is Hua-yu San-lang [華嶽三郎]and in the latter,it is Guan-ping.
When the cult of Guan-yu reached the Song Dynasty,it underwent some major transformations. These changes were threefold:A ceremonial and ritual structure for the worship of Guan-yu was created. The Guan-yu cult was conceptualized within the religious framework of Buddhism and Taoism. Different manners for worship of Guan-yu were evolved.
ISSN16086848 (P)
ヒット数1033
作成日2003.09.26
更新日期2017.07.25



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