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由船山易學對佛教的批評看近代以來的儒佛交涉=A Look at the Contemporary Relationship between Confucianism and Buddhism from the Criticism on Buddhism in Ch'uan-shan's Study on the Book of Changes
著者 林建勳 =Lin, Chien-hsun
掲載誌 圓光佛學學報=Yuan Kuang Journal of Buddhist Studies
巻号n.6
出版年月日2001.12
ページ153 - 172
出版者圓光佛學研究所=Yuan Kuang Buddhist College
出版サイト http://www.ykbi.edu.tw/
出版地桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
キーワード王船山; 船山易學; 道德; 慈悲; 儒佛會通; 中國佛教史
抄録本文主在探討王船山對佛教的批評,所呈現出佛儒相異的重點,進而探討中國近代以來儒佛的交涉,其中最大的相異點是道德創造之幾的有無. 尤以儒家而言,道德創造的本源不但價值的本源,同時以人文的眼光去看世界的萬有,萬有因這個本源而有了意義,故可說萬有的本源就在這個根源,故儒家稱之為天理.這個觀點是王船山以來至現代的熊十力. 唐君毅. 牟宗三對佛教批評的基調. 但佛教所說的慈悲顯然與儒家說的道德密不可分,只是佛教在以涅槃離苦為終極關懷的理論上,沒將這個價值與趨向加以存有論式的陳述罷了. 而佛陀一切為眾生的作為,乃至大乘的慈悲精神,都是儒家道德行為的實際展現.佛教以修行實踐為主的理論中,重點在如何離苦得樂,而佛教以否定所有的形上本體,來體悟空智的理論格局,又使所有的存在論陳述無法進行,只能是緣起法所消解的對象,這就註定有關慈悲與道德的存有,在理論上不可能被正面陳述的命運.慈悲與道德雖在佛教理論上無法以存有論的面貌被陳述,但它們是一種價值取向,就謝勒. 馬克思的說法,它可以是種認知的背景,卻很難是認知的對象. 因此,它們是能用緣起無生法認知世界的背景,卻不一定要有存在論的正面陳述. 因此,出世智慧與大慈大悲是一時俱發的,沒慈悲就沒出世智慧,沒出世智慧便沒真正的慈悲,出世智慧是佛教對世間的認知,慈悲則是這樣認知中具時而發的背景,兩者不能拆成兩片來看. 基此,儒家以道德本源的有無來批評佛教是極為不切的,因佛教的理論重點並不在此,且由佛教精神看來,二者並不衝突. 由這點,我們始能開始思考儒佛會通的問題.

This research paper is mainly a discussion of Wang,Quah Shan's critique of Buddhism,more specifically,it is a discussion of W.Q.S [Wang,Quah Shan]'s thoughts on the principal differences between Buddhism and Confucianism and of the point-in-common between them in modern times. The main difference lies in the question of whether moral virtues is created or not.
From the perspective of Confucianism,the source of the creation of moral virtue is not only a source in its value,but at the same time,it gives significance and meaning to phenomena because of their source in origin. This is taken from the viewpoint of the literati regarding the world's myriad phenomena is based in the origin of moral virtue. Confucianism calls this the Principle of Heaven [天理].
From W.Q.S. down to Xiong,Shi-li,Tang,Jun-yi and Mou,Zong-San,this view as kept by them all. The concept of compassion in Buddhism is closely related to the concept of moral virtue in Confucianism. However,Buddhism emphasizes the goal of nirvana and liberation from suffering as its main principles rather than dwelling on the virtue of moral virtue. The Buddha had worked for the benefit of all sentient being by practicing compassion in the Mahayana spirit. This was a practical and real life expression of Confucianism's principle of moral virtue. In Buddhism's theory on realistic spiritual cultivation,the emphasis is on liberation rom suffering and the attainment of happiness. Buddhism negates any form of metaphysical speculation. Instead,it focuses on the theory of realizing wisdom that cognizes emptiness. As a result,it leads to the perspective that all phenomena-based theories are invalid and that they are only objects of the dissolution of conditioned phenomena. Thus, any direct metaphysical discussions concerning the concepts of compassion and moral virtue are not really possible. Even though the ideas of compassion and moral virtue are not really discussible as phenomena-based theories in Buddhism,compassion and moral virtue still tend to be viewed as principles of value. According to Marx,they can be viewed as something that can be known in background,but difficult to be nown directly. Thus, it can be said that compassion and moral virtue in the world exists in background as unborn conditioned phenomena. But,it need not be directly discussed from the perspective of phenomena-based theory. As a result,we can say that transcendental wisdom and compassion are simultaneously risen. If there is no compassion,then there is no transcendental wisdom. Without transcendental wisdom,there does not exist genuine compassion. Transcendental wisdom is Buddhism's realization of the world and compassion is at the same time arisen in background to this realization. The two cannot be considered separately. The Confucian perspective of using the issue of whether moral virtue exists or not to criticize Buddhism is then not actually appropriate because the main emphasis of Buddhism lies not in this issue. From this, we can begin to find the points-in-common between Confucianism and Buddhism.
ISSN16086848 (P)
ヒット数672
作成日2003.09.26
更新日期2017.07.25



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