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朱子的「靜坐」觀與其思想背景=Zhu Xi's Concept of “Meditation” and Its Background of Thought
著者 中嶋隆藏 (著)=Nakajima Ryuzo (au.) ; 釋性一 ; 野川博之
掲載誌 圓光佛學學報=Yuan Kuang Journal of Buddhist Studies
巻号n.17
出版年月日2011.08
ページ65 - 98
出版者圓光佛學研究所=Yuan Kuang Buddhist College
出版サイト http://www.ykbi.edu.tw/
出版地桃園縣, 臺灣 [Taoyuean hsien, Taiwan]
資料の種類期刊論文=Journal Article
言語中文=Chinese
ノート作者單位:日本東北大學榮譽教授。譯者單位:圓光佛學研究所、立德大學
キーワード朱子; 靜坐
抄録朱子認為「靜坐」不是孔子以來的東西,而是達磨傳過來的;儘管如此,對修習學問而言,卻是個極為有用的修養方法。然而,出現於11世紀中葉以前的達磨事蹟相關的文獻中,我們看不到任何「靜坐」這個詞彙,所以我們推測它可能並非來自達磨。如筆者在本文中所提到地,《摩訶止觀》中有出現意思跟筆者在本稿所討論的問題意思較接近的「靜坐」這個字眼,然而還是有討論的餘地。根據管見,「靜坐」做為修養身心,通曉天地道理,而達到實踐天地道理的境界的修行方法而出現的是《周易正義》;然而其後,中國三教沒有任何文獻將其視為重要概念而特別提到它,可以看出有關靜坐較深刻的思索只有《祖堂集.仰山章》中的一節而已。筆者認為,對「靜坐」表現出高度關心的是,在北宋後半,儒學方面是二程子,在道教方面則是張伯瑞,尤其是前者將「靜坐」定位為學問修養的重大事,二程子這種認識,經由繼承其學統的羅仲素、李延平,為朱子所繼承,並在理論和實踐兩方面予以充實。

朱子當年從學李延平時,仍對「靜坐」的實踐抱持半信半疑的態度;然而,可能在延平逝世以後他也認真地累積實踐,同時並對南宋初期道教的「靜坐」觀,還有禪,尤其是,默照禪和大慧禪的「靜坐」觀做研究。從他給弟子們的教誨來看,似乎在李延平逝世後十年以內,朱子已經確立了他獨特的「靜坐」觀。若僅就依據《朱子語類》來看的話,朱子在其生涯後半約三十年間,有關「靜坐」,給弟子們的各種教誨中,除了完全欠缺「靜坐」的具體姿態和動作的說明外,在學問、修養上的意義和定位,以及有關實踐上該注意的事項等,幾乎全面地涉及到了;我們可以窺見出朱子在其後半生確信自己的「靜坐」觀是正確的,在這種確信之下,他指導著弟子們,希望能矯正世間對「靜坐」的謬見。

Zhu Xi considered that “meditation” is not anything that has evolved from Confucius but passed to us through Bodhidharma. Despite such a thought, meditation is believed to be a very useful way of cultivation for learning about scholarship. Nonetheless, we cannot, from any related literatures on Bodhidharma before the middle of 11st century, have found any term as “meditation,” and it is why we have predicted that the term might not have been originated from Bodhidharma. Just as what the author has mentioned in this article, it is found in “Mo-Ho-Chi-Kuan” a term closer with connotation to the term “meditation” discussed in this work; however, there remains some space for further deliberation. Based on Guan-jian, “meditation” is the measure conducted for physical and spiritual cultivation so that one can have appreciated thoroughly the profound truth of heaven and earth, thus achieving the ways of practicing found in “Justice of Zhou Yi” to reach the realm realizing the truth of heaven and earth. Afterwards, none of the literatures from Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism of China have reckoned its as a specially important concept as to mention about it, so thatwe can see that there is only but a section in “Xu Tang Anthology – Yang-shan chapter” has conducted a somewhat intense contemplation on it. The author considers that it is two masters Cheng Yi, and Cheng Hao from Confucianism, and Chang Bo-ruei from Taoism had paid special attention to “meditation” at the second half of North Song Dynasty. Most of all, the former two masters had taken “meditation” as a major event of scholarship and cultivation, whereas such appreciation by Cheng Yi and Cheng Hao are found through academic legacy inherited from Lo Chung Su, and Li Yang Ping, which is then being succeeded by Zhu Xi who had helped to enrich it with theory and practice.
When Zhu Xi was learning after Li Yang Ping back then, he was holding rather attitude of much hesitation with practice of “meditation.” However, it is likely that Zhu Xi began to seriously accumulate practice on it after the death of Yang Ping, and he had, at the same time, conducted some study on the concept of “meditation” of early Taoism during the South Song Dynasty, Zen, and most of all, “meditation” of Mo-Zau Ch’an and Da-hui Ch’an. As learned from the lectures he delivered to his followers, it seems that within decade after Li Yang Ping passed away Zhi Xi had already established his unique concept on “meditation.” If we merely observe from the “Analects of Zhu Xi,” he had, in the later 30 years of his career, almost involved every aspect to items of “meditation” regarding scholarship, and meaning and positioning of cultivation that one should take notice with various kinds of works he left to his followers, except in short of elaboration on substantive profile and action of “meditation.” In such a way, we are convinced that Zhi Xi did trust he is right with concept of “medication” at the later half of his life. Under such persuasion, he had supervised and guided his followers, hoping that he could have rectified the erroneous idea by the people with regard to “meditation.”

目次序說 69
1.朱子前半生的「靜坐」觀 71
2.朱子後半生的「靜坐」觀─以他對弟子們的諭示為中心 80
ISSN16086848 (P)
ヒット数655
作成日2013.08.05
更新日期2017.08.09



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